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More frequently than adults, pediatric victims of severe traumatic brain injury experience diffuse severe cerebral edema without mass lesions. These patients require methods to reduce intracranial pressure quickly and reliably. Surgical decompression provides rapid relief of increased intracranial pressure and is an alternative to maximal medical therapy for these individuals. Based on previous trials, most of which are anecdotal but now include attempts at case controlled and cohort matcheddoi:10.1186/cc2370 pmid:14624675 pmcid:PMC374371 fatcat:4lq5b6g7rbendgxrflfwt6dxw4