Pore-water sulfate concentration profiles of sediment cores from Krishna-Godavari and Goa basins, India
Several cores from Krishna-Godavari (Western Bay of Bengal) and Goa (Eastern Arabian Sea) basins have been studied for pore water sulfate concentrations in order to understand and contrast the diagenetic processes. K-G sediments differ markedly from Goa sediments in pore water sulfate gradients and depth-integrated sulfate reduction rates. Significantly higher sulfate reduction rates in K-G sediments (3.6 to 15.8 nmol cm -2 day -1 ), compared to that in Goa sediments (0.011 to 0.94 nmol cm -2
... o 0.94 nmol cm -2 day -1 ), can be attributed to higher sedimentation rates. Lower exposure time to oxygen for the organic matter in K-G sediments has preserved reactive organic compounds required for sulfate reducers and possibly methanogens. Authigenic carbonates with depleted carbon isotopic composition (δ 13 C = -48 to -50‰) at the base of the sulfate reduction zone in a core from K-G suggests anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) process. The possibility, that the underlying methane gas hydrate zone is acting as a methane source for sulfate reduction can not be negated specially in light of the existing geophysical studies. Both methane and the fermentation products of organic matter degradation served as a substrate for sulfate reduction. However, a clear understanding of there relative importance needs further investigation.