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The estimation of solar cell efficiency from minority carrier lifetime measurements requires precise and robust lifetime techniques. For multicrystalline wafers and solar cells this brings about the necessity of adequately averaged spatially resolved lifetime measurements. Materials such as e.g. multicrystalline upgraded metallurgical grade silicon frequently feature relatively low lifetimes, high trap densities, and several material parameters (charge carrier mobilities and net dopantdoi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.06.103 fatcat:bhkfp7elznda7msgjzde6mjajm