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This paper describes basic principles and philosophy for wide-area protection schemes, also known as remedial action schemes (RAS) or system protection schemes (SPS). In the areas of power system automation and substation automation, there are two parallel trends in different directions: centralization and decentralization. More and more functions are moved from local and regional control centers toward the central or national control center. At the same time we also observe more and moredoi:10.1109/jproc.2005.847266 fatcat:boqi2qq7t5cytn6silfgyf57ly