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communicating war in Mali, 2012: on-offline networked political agency in times of conflict aBstract The Arab Spring raised high expectations for political freedom, especially for situations in which the rapid development of ICT intersects with political oppression and rebellion, as was the case in Mali, West Africa. In 2012 the country's northern part fell into the hands of 'rebels' and jihadists were on the rise. This article tries to understand the development of political agency in relationdoi:10.1386/jams.7.2.109_1 fatcat:qdn3jxfgmjaareszrj2n2fzka4