Heart arrhythmias and conduction disorders in patients with acromegaly: the role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Cardiovascular complications including arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders are one of the main reasons of high mortality rate in acromegaly, while they have not been well explored. Aim.To estimate arrhythmias frequency in acromegaly, identify risk factors leading to the development of arrhythmia and cardiac conduction disorder, to determine the role of cardiac MRI in detecting structural and functional changes. Materials and methods.A single-center prospective cohort study, which
... study, which included 461 patients (151 men and 310 women) with acromegaly, was conducted. All the patients underwent a standard medical examination, including hormonal blood test, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, electrocardiogram daily monitoring. 18 patients with arrhythmias (11 men and 7 women) had cardiac MRI with gadolinium-based contrast. Results.The results of our research show high frequency of arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders in patients with acromegaly 42%. Most frequent kinds of arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders were sinus bradycardia 19.1% of the cases and conduction disorders of bundle branch blocks 14.5%. Men were more likely to suffer from arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders than women (54.2% and 37.4%, respectively,p=0.0005). Not acromegaly activity but duration of the disease was a main risk factor of arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders. Patients with arrhythmias had a long anamnesis of acromegaly (10 and 7 years, respectively, p=0.04). Meanwhile, cardiac conduction disorders were commonly observed in the patients who were treated with somatostatin analogs comparing to the patients who didnt undergo this therapy (50% and 38.6% respectively,p=0.004). We showed that 61% of patients with acromegaly and cardiac conduction disorders who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) had the signs of myocardial fibrosis. The value of the ejection fraction of the left ventricle according to MRI was higher than with echocardiography (p=0.04). Conclusion.Arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders are often observed in patients with acromegaly even with remission of the disease. High risk group need careful diagnostic and monitoring approaches. Cardiac MRI is the gold standard for visualization of structural and morphological changes in the heart. Use of cardiac MRI in acromegalic patients expands our understanding of arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders in this disease. There are no specific laboratory markers of diffuse myocardial fibrosis, and the role of myocardial fibrosis in the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disorders needs further studying.