Advance Warning Methodologies for COVID-19 using Chest X-Ray Images
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global health concern after its first known detection in December 2019. As a result, accurate and reliable advance warning system for the early diagnosis of COVID-19 has now become a priority. The detection of COVID-19 in early stages is not a straightforward task from chest X-ray images according to expert medical doctors because the traces of the infection are visible only when the disease has progressed to a moderate or severe stage.
... or severe stage. In this study, our first aim is to evaluate the ability of recent state-of-the-art Machine Learning techniques for the early detection of COVID-19 from chest X-ray images. Both compact classifiers and deep learning approaches are considered in this study. Furthermore, we propose a recent compact classifier, Convolutional Support Estimator Network (CSEN) approach for this purpose since it is well-suited for a scarce-data classification task. Finally, this study introduces a new benchmark dataset called Early-QaTa-COV19, which consists of 1065 early-stage COVID-19 pneumonia samples (very limited or no infection signs) labeled by the medical doctors and 12 544 samples for control (normal) class. A detailed set of experiments shows that the CSEN achieves the top (over 97%) sensitivity with over 95.5% specificity. Moreover, DenseNet-121 network produces the leading performance among other deep networks with 95% sensitivity and 99.74% specificity. INDEX TERMS COVID-19 detection in early stages, deep learning, machine learning, representation based classification. 41052 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ VOLUME 9, 2021