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KONSERVASI DAN PEMANFAATAN SUMBER DAYA GENETIK KACANG HIJAU

Lukman Hakim, Abstrak Bank, Plasma Nutfah, Balai Besar, Penelitian Dan, Pengembangan Bioteknologi, Dan Sumberdaya, Genetik Pertanian, Bb, Biogen Di Bogor, Jawa Barat
2008 Jurnal Litbang Pertanian   unpublished
, pada tahun 2006 mengkonservasi 1.024 aksesi plasma nutfah kacang hijau, yang terdiri atas 142 varietas lokal, 833 varietas introduksi, 32 galur homozigot, dan 17 varietas unggul. Konservasi plasma nutfah kacang hijau dilakukan dengan dua cara, yaitu penyimpanan jangka pendek pada suhu 1518 o C untuk active collection dan penyimpanan jangka menengah pada suhu-5 o C untuk base collection. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan bahwa aksesi plasma nutfah kacang hijau mempunyai keragaman sifat agronomi
more » ... aman sifat agronomi yang cukup luas, terutama untuk karakter umur polong masak, tinggi tanaman, jumlah polong per tanaman, dan ukuran biji. Hasil evaluasi ketahanan terhadap hama dan penyakit memperlihatkan satu aksesi (V4281) tahan terhadap hama lalat bibit, tiga aksesi tahan penyakit bercak daun, dan enam aksesi tahan atau toleran penyakit embun tepung. Untuk evaluasi terhadap mutu biji, dua aksesi (VR290 dan VR194) mempunyai kandungan protein tinggi (30%), dan empat aksesi memiliki ukuran biji besar dan rasa enak (pulen). Plasma nutfah kacang hijau telah memberikan manfaat nyata dalam program pemuliaan. Beberapa aksesi telah dilepas menjadi varietas unggul baru, dan sejumlah aksesi telah digunakan sebagai sumber ketahanan dalam program persilangan. Dengan memanfaatkan sumber daya genetik yang ada, telah dilepas 19 varietas unggul nasional kacang hijau. ABSTRACT Conservation and utilization of mungbean genetic resources Currently 1,024 mungbean germplasm accessions consisted of 142 local and 833 introduced varieties, 32 promising lines, and 17 commercial varieties are being maintained in the National Genebank at Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development. The seeds of mungbean germplasm are preserved in two types of invironment. The active collections are maintained at 15-18 o C as short-term storage, while the base collections are kept at-5 o C as mid-term storage. A wide range of variability was observed for all the agronomic characters studied, especially for days to maturity, plant height, pods per plant, and seed size. Germplasm evaluation has identified several resistance sources. One accession (V4281) was resistant to beanflies, three accessions were resistant to cercospora leaf spot, and six accessions were resistant to powdery mildew. The variation for protein content of germplasm was not very broad. Two accessions (VR290 and VR194) had the highest protein content of 30%, respectively. Germplasm evaluation also obtained four accessions which had largest seed size and good seed quality. Utilization of mungbean genetic resources has made a significant contribution on mungbean breeding program. Several accessions had been officially released as new cultivars, and a number of accessions have been used as sources of resistance on hybridization program. Currently 19 commercial mungbean varieties have been officially released in the country.
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