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Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are migratory birds that breed in colonies and frequently nest on highway structures. Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, swallows in their active nests cannot be harmed by nesting-control methods. This causes problems and delays in maintenance of structures by divisions of many departments of transportation. We evaluated 2 aversion strategies, bioacoustic deterrents and surface modifi cations, for their effect on cliff swallow nestingdoi:10.26077/jecg-rh20 fatcat:or63mntfyrehzlg33pnjgguseq