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The past decade has seen a rise of interest in Laplacian eigenmaps (LEMs) for nonlinear dimensionality reduction. LEMs have been used in spectral clustering, in semisupervised learning, and for providing efficient state representations for reinforcement learning. Here, we show that LEMs are closely related to slow feature analysis (SFA), a biologically inspired, unsupervised learning algorithm originally designed for learning invariant visual representations. We show that SFA can be interpreteddoi:10.1162/neco_a_00214 pmid:21919780 fatcat:ypmqpsaatvgutozkvq275ctlny