Integrating Geotechnical Investigation with Hydrological Modeling for Mitigation of Expansive Soil Hazards in Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology
Due to global climatic changes, flash floods are followed as a yearly disaster with high magnitude of influence. During the years 1981, 1988, 2010, 2012 and in January 2013, Tabuk city, northwest of Saudi Arabia suffered huge flash floods. These are major factors affecting on the swelling behavior of expansive Tabuk shale. The examined geotechnical properties of the surface and subsurface lithology of the sedimentary deposits distinguished Tabuk city into three zones. The expansive zone is
... ansive zone is spread in the middle and the non-expansive zones are distributed in the east and west of the city. The Watershed Modeling System (WMS) and Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC-1) models were used to delineate and identify the drainage system and basin morphometry, where flash floods and accumulation of water might take place. Integration between geotechnical distribution maps of the expansion soil and surface hydrological data in terms of runoff maps was done. It has been identified the whereabouts the soils which have expansion characteristics and areas prone to flooding and surface runoff. They are helpful in defining the hazard zones map. Based on this map, it can be avoided constructions on the risk neighborhoods such as Al Qadsiyah, Al Maseif, Arrwdah, Al Nakhil and Al Rajhi. Also, it can suggest that the western side of Tabuk city is suitable for future urban extension. These results will help planners and citizens to create alternative development scenarios and determine their impact on the future urbanization patterns. Moreover, the direction of surface runoff flow or storm water discharge should be away from the expansion soil areas. Therefore, constructing dams on the outlet of the high-risk basins, south of Tabuk city is an important solution to control flash flood events, as well as increase groundwater recharge.