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Physical model study of bedrock scour downstream of dams due to spillway plunging jets

A Bosman, G R Basson
2020 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  
The erosive power of a free-falling high-velocity water jet, flowing from a dam spillway, could create a scour hole downstream of the dam, endangering the foundation of the dam. Despite extensive research since the 1950s, there is presently no universally agreed method to predict accurately the equilibrium scour depth caused by plunging jets at dams. These formulae yield a large range of equilibrium scour dimensions. The hydrodynamics of plunging jets and the subsequent scour of a rectangular,
more » ... of a rectangular, horizontal and vertical fissured rock bed were investigated in this study by means of a physical model. Equilibrium scour hole geometries for different fissured dimensions (simulated with rectangular concrete blocks tightly prepacked in a regular rectangular matrix), for a range of flow rates, plunge pool depths, and dam height scenarios were experimentally established with 31 model tests. From the results, non-dimensional formulae for the scour hole geometry were developed using multi-linear regression analysis. The scour depth results from this study were compared to various analytical methods found in literature. The equilibrium scour hole depth established in this study best agrees with that predicted by the Critical Pressure method.
doi:10.17159/2309-8775/2020/v62n3a4 fatcat:ntnwlfyt45hwvlmdyaqcxco5na