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Characterization and selection of hexaploid wheats containing resistance to Heterodera avenae or Mayetiola destructor introgressed from Aegilops: a review

A. Delibes, I. López Braña, S. Moreno Vázquez
2008 Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research  
Cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) and Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor) are two major pests affecting wheat crops worldwide including important cereal areas of Spain. Aegilops ventricosa and Ae. triuncialis were used as donors in a strategy to introduce resistance genes (RG) for these pests in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two 42 chromosomes introgression lines have been derived from Ae. ventricosa: H-93-8 and H-93-33 carrying genes Cre2 and H27 conferring resistance
more » ... ferring resistance to CCN and HF, respectively. Line TR-3531 with 42 chromosomes has been derived from Ae. triuncialis and carries RGs conferring resistance for CCN (Cre7) and for HF (H30). Alien material has been incorporated in lines H-93 by chromosomal substitution and recombination, while in line TR-3531 homoeologous recombination affecting small DNA fragments has played a major role. It has been demonstrated that Cre2, Cre7, H27 and H30 are major single dominant genes and not allelic of other previously described RGs. Biochemical and molecular-biology studies of the defense mechanism triggered by Cre2 and Cre7 have revealed specific induction of peroxidase and other antioxidant enzymes. In parallel to these basic studies advanced lines carrying resistance genes for CNN and/or HF have been developed. Selection was done using molecular markers for eventually «pyramiding» resistance genes. Several isozyme and RAPD markers have been described and, currently, new markers based on transposable elements and NBS-LRR sequences are being developed. At present, two advanced lines have already been included at the Spanish Catalogue of Commercial Plant Varieties. Resumen Revisión. Caracterización y selección de trigos hexaploides con resistencia a Heterodera avenae o Mayetiola destructor transferida desde Aegilops El nematodo del quiste de los cereales (CCN, Heterodera avenae) y el mosquito del trigo (HF, Mayetiola destructor) son dos plagas que afectan a los cultivos de trigo incluyendo importantes áreas cerealistas en España. Aegilops ventricosa y Ae. triuncialis se han usado como donantes en una estrategia para introducir genes de resistencia (RG) para estas plagas en trigo hexaploide (Triticum aestivum L.). Por una parte, a partir de Ae. ventricosa se han generado dos líneas de introgresión de 42 cromosomas: H-93-8 y H-93-33, con los genes Cre2 y H27 que confieren resistencia a CCN y HF, respectivamente. Por otra, se ha generado la línea TR-3531 de 42 cromosomas, derivada de Ae. triuncialis, con RGs para CCN (Cre7) y HF (H30). La introgresión en las líneas H-93 se ha producido por sustitución cromosómica y recombinación, mientras que en la línea TR-3531 ha sido fundamentalmente por la recombinación homeóloga de pequeños fragmentos de ADN. Cre2, Cre7, H27 y H30 son genes dominantes simples, no alélicos a otros RGs previamente descritos. Estudios bioquímicos y de biología molecular sobre las defensas inducidas por Cre2 y Cre7 han revelado que las peroxidasas y otras enzimas antioxidantes se inducen de forma específica. En paralelo a
doi:10.5424/sjar/200806s1-376 fatcat:oyjc6vxd4vhxzlt7ajeocrahr4