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AbstractPulmonary infections are associated with a brisk inflammatory reaction to bacterial surface components. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) trigger macrophage activation and release of mitochondrial metabolites that control the intensity of the immune response. Whereas succinate induces oxidative stress (ROS), HIF1α stabilization, glycolysis and IL-1β release, itaconate suppresses inflammation by inhibiting succinate oxidation, glycolytic flux and promoting anti-oxidant Nrf2-HO-1 functions. P.doi:10.1186/s12931-020-01591-x pmid:33302964 fatcat:362jmopi4jg2ph5jeroalkedoe