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Microwave Carbonation of Thermal Power Plant Flue Gas/CO2 by Fly Ash/Coal Char for Soil Remediation and Ground Stabilization [chapter]

Yıldırım İsmail Tosun
2020 Carbon-Based Material for Environmental Protection and Remediation  
In this research, the cementing filler material production by microwave carbonation of flue gas of coal combusting thermal power station of Silopi in Şırnak by fly ash/coal char, Şırnak asphaltite char, in molten alkali salts will be investigated. The optimum carbonation was managed in order to provide an overview of stabilization of foundation grounds. In this study, the effect of microwave energy managed the carbonation by salt slurries with flue gas contents in the reactor. By the slurry
more » ... . By the slurry character of salts in the furnace during that process, the flue gas of Şırnak thermal power plant, salt type and flue content were investigated for carbonation with weight and slurry performances. In this study, the toxic emitted contents were also determined in salt slurry, regarding the amounts and type of salt contents as sorbent agents. As a result, a significant positive effect of microwave energy on the carbonation products was determined at lower gas flow rate and steam rates. Finally, 23% CO 2 carbonation could be provided. The oil content in flue gas decreased carbonation fractions. The salt slurry content was primarily settled and coal humus char as by-product was also recovered as solid with a 38.7% recovery rate in microwave carbonation in slurry salt with 20% solid/water rate. The strengths of the ground blocks were dispersed to 0.8-1.2 MPa in shear strength and 3.7-9.4 MPa in compression strength. Thus, with the ideal packing, the strength of the mixed cemented blocks produced from these fine fillers and waste mixtures can also reach 11.2 MPa in compression strength and 3.9 MPa in shear strength. Carbon-Based Material for Environmental Protection and Remediation 2 stabilizing filler materials for land. Mg and Ca containing minerals are commonly reacting with CO 2 to form carbonates. Even by evaporation of salty solutions, similar carbonates and sulfates were precipitated at low temperatures such as 40°C. Various types of hot water sources may react with CO 2 to form carbonate regarding salt composition and reaction parameters. Mineral carbonation of CO 2 will also allow using the products in cement industry or as cement material in constructions with low cost. In this study, the supply of CO 2 will be provided by nearby power stations. Other choice will be the purchase of a pure CO 2 originating from flue gas and hydrocarbon dusty mist of coal combusting industrial furnace at a cement plant. For the pilot plant design, a carbonation unit will contain the compressed flue gas tanks so that sequentially compressed CO 2 will be delivered to carbonation reactor in gas phase, temporarily stored underground at site, and conditioned before carbonation. The carbonation reactions to inject the CO 2 at pressurized microwave radiated heating were effective in reaction gaseous phase with salty molten phase at a slightly high pressure and slightly under supercritical temperature. This paper discussed progress on reactor achieved by tests and search for fast reaction methods using exhaust gas containing sulfur and carbon gases at power stations [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] . The alkaline sources containing alkali sodium and magnesium salts, under 10-20 bar pressurized CO 2 , salt slurry, and additives were searched for microwave carbonation method to enhance mineral reactivity and to analyze the structural changes to identify reaction kinetics and potential impurity and fouling barriers. Carbonation products of CO 2 gas were Ca and alkali carbonates even metal iron carbonates. Most distinct sequestration is that carbonization outputs a lower energy compound than calcination [6] [7] [8] [9]. Calcium and magnesium carbonates commonly occur in nature (i.e., the weathering of rock over geologic time periods). Moreover, the evaporation outputs such as magnesium-based minerals are dissolved by hot waters and then crystallized at 30-40°C coming out as evaporates on earth. The evaporate carbonates are resistively stable and thus do not re-evolve CO 2 into the atmosphere as an issue. However, settling carbonation evaporates are crystallized very slow under warm temperatures and even saturated in effluent warm waters [10] [11] [12] . Natural gas, internal engine combusting and coal fired combusting systems account for almost 80% of the total of world carbon emissions today. There is an important need for carbonation in eliminate carbon gases emission to nature, ease of use and storage, existing filler structure, and most low cost rather than amine absorption. Forty percent of global electricity is generated in fossil fuel power plants per annum, with emissions of about 23% of global energy-related CO 2 pollutes (5.5 billion metric tons) of about 14.7 Gt in 2015 [11, 12] . Over a quarter of the electricity demand of Turkey is supplied by coal-fired power plants, with emissions of about 4 million metric tons of CO 2 as pollutant, among about 23% energy-related polluting gas emissions [13, 14] . Therefore, sequestration with effective CO 2 carbonation method is one of the critical choices in addressing global warming and air pollution. It is improving the efficiency of fuel utilization and curing the environment. The renewable energy sources will certainly play a very important role in reducing CO 2 emissions [15] . Those carbonization and amine absorption methods alone cannot address the greenhouse emission issue mainly because world energy consumption will increase significantly as the living standard improves in many parts of the world. The coal combusting boiler types of power plants and internal vehicle engines still emit over 5% of the carbon dioxide, 1% of the sulfur dioxide, and less than 1% of the nitrous oxide emitted by a coal-fired plant. Similarly, injection of compressed gas to cold back injection to geothermal fields sequestrated less of the carbon dioxide as shown in Figure 1 [16]. The method for storing CO 2 in deep underground geological formations need adequate porosity and thickness for storage capacity, and permeability for gas injection that are critical as shown in Figure 2 . The storage formation should be capped by
doi:10.5772/intechopen.91342 fatcat:hftarwximjb7znbynqrgz6jqvm