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The role of communities of practice in knowledge creation is recognised in a number of contexts. The authors take a socio-technical perspective and identify four characteristics of such communities: situated learning, situated action, distributed cognition and social infrastructure. These are combined into a loosely normative framework to define and analyse communities of practice at the level of online micro-organisation. The framework is applied to three development projects: a referencedoi:10.1109/hicss.2001.926353 dblp:conf/hicss/DavenportH01 fatcat:fnwtz3wy2zd6vieadbnmlrp7ee