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Methods for the synthesis of five-membered benzannelated heterocyclic compounds from the military explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are summarised. The general approach concerns the transformation of the TNT methyl group followed by either intramolecular substitution of the ortho-nitro group or regioselective substitution of the ortho-nitro group by an appropriate nucleophile and subsequent cyclization.doi:10.3998/ark.5550190.0010.409 fatcat:7agik5c45nffjnv4gn7o62ijri