Anti-proliferative effect of levamisole on human myeloma cell linesin vitro
Journal of Immunotoxicology
Levamisole has been employed as an immunomodulatory agent in conjunction with 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of colon cancer relapse. At high doses, levamisole has been shown to have both anti-cancer and immunosuppressive activities. In vitro, levamisole has been shown to potentiate the anti-proliferative effect of 5-fluorouracil in several types of tumor cell lines; however, its mechanism of cytotoxic action and its molecular targets in cells remains to be elucidated. Here, the effect of
... the effect of levamisole on the proliferative response of the human multiple myeloma cell lines RPMI 8226 and U266B1 was studied in vitro. Treatment of both lines with varying concentrations of levamisole for 48 and 72 h in culture resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation (unstimulated) in a dose-dependent manner, as assessed by an 3-[(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye assay. Furthermore, measurements of cell viability (using a trypan blue dye exclusion assay) clearly showed that the levamisole was cytotoxic. The preliminary evaluation of the mechanism of this cytotoxic effect revealed that this drug induced apoptosis in the myeloma cells, as evidenced by increases in the levels of DNA fragmentation, release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, and the activation of caspase-3 activity in the cells. The results of these studies strongly suggest that levamisole could be a potent anti-myeloma agent and might be considered in the treatment of multiple myeloma in the future.