Monitoring the rainfall intensity at two active volcanoes in Indonesia and Japan by small-compact X-band radars
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment
Since 2015, collaborative research conducted by Indonesian and Japan scientists has initiated the installation of small X-band Multi-Parameter (X-MP) radars to mitigate the occurrence of rainfall-induced lahar in three active volcanoes in Indonesia and Japan: Merapi, Sinabung, and Sakurajima. This paper discusses the technical aspects of data acquisition, processing, and performance of the X-MP radar at the Merapi and Sakurajima volcanoes by comparing the estimated rainfall intensity acquired
... ntensity acquired by the radar to three empirical radar-rainfall algorithms. The algorithms are based on radar reflectivity factor (ZHH), specific differential phase shift (KDP), and differential reflectivity (ZDR). A new method of Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator (CAPPI) interpolation by linear regression is also proposed for a more efficient computation. The first algorithm by Marshall-Palmer, which relies on ZHH, gave the lowest average and maximum rainfall values compared with the other algorithms for all rainfall event cases. On the other hand, the other two algorithms, which involve the MP of radar by Bringi and Chandrasekar and Park et al., gave closer rainfall intensity values with the estimated rainfall intensity acquired by the X-MP radar. These three rain rates give a closer temporal fluctuation when they are compared to the rain gauge-based rainfall intensity.