In vitro–in vivo evaluation of chitosan-PLGA nanoparticles for potentiated gastric retention and anti-ulcer activity of diosmin
International Journal of Nanomedicine
Diosmin showed poor water solubility and low bioavailability. Poly(d,llactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were successfully used to improve the drugs solubility and bioavailability. Coating of PLGA nanoparticles with chitosan can ameliorate their gastric retention and cellular uptake. Methodology: PLGA nanoparticles of diosmin were prepared using different drug and polymer amounts. Nanoparticles were selected based on entrapment efficiency% (EE%) and particle size measurements to be
... urements to be coated with chitosan. The selected nanoparticles either uncoated or coated were evaluated regarding morphology, ζ-potential, solid-state characterization, in vitro release, storage stability, and mucoadhesion. The anti-ulcer activity (AA) against ethanolinduced ulcer in rats was assessed through macroscopical evaluation, histopathological examination, immunohistochemical localization of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and transmission electron microscopic examination of gastric tissues compared to free diosmin (100 mg/kg) and positive control. Results: Based on EE% and particle size measurements, the selected nanoparticles, either uncoated or coated with 0.1% w/v chitosan, were based on 1:15 drug-PLGA weight ratio and 20 mg diosmin employing methylene chloride as an organic phase. Examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed nanoscopic spherical particles. Drug encapsulation within the selected nanoparticles was suggested by Fourier transforminfrared, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry results. Chitosan-coated nanoparticles were more stable against size enlargement probably due to the higher ζ-potential. Only coated nanoparticles showed gastric retention as revealed by SEM examination of stomach and duodenum. The superior AA of coated nanoparticles was confirmed by significant reduction in average mucosal damage, the majority of histopathological changes and NF-κB expression in gastric tissue when compared to positive control, diosmin and uncoated nanoparticles as well as insignificant difference relative to normal control. Coated nanoparticles preserved the normal ultrastructure of the gastric mucosa as revealed by TEM examination. Conclusion: The optimized chitosan-coated PLGA nanoparticles can be represented as a potential oral drug delivery system of diosmin.