Insecticide resistance in Anopheles stephensi in Somali Region, eastern Ethiopia
Background The movement of malaria vectors into new areas is a growing concern in the efforts to control malaria. The recent report of Anopheles stephensi in eastern Ethiopia has raised the necessity to understand the insecticide resistance status of the vector in the region to better inform vector-based interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate insecticide resistance in An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia using two approaches: 1) World Health Organization (WHO) bioassay tests in An.
... ssay tests in An. stephensi; and 2) genetic analysis of insecticide resistance genes in An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia. Methods Mosquito larvae and pupae were collected from Kebri Dehar. Insecticide susceptibility of An. stephensi was tested withmalathion 5%, bendiocarb 0.1%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.05%, permethrin 0.75%, Pirimiphos-methyl 0.25% and DDT 4%, according to WHO standard protocols. In this study, the knockdown resistance locus (kdr) in the voltage gated sodium channel (vgsc) and ace1R locus in the acetylcholinesterase gene (ace-1) were analysed in An. stephensi. Results All An. stephensi samples were resistant to carbamates, with mortality rates of 23% and 21% for bendiocarb and propoxur, respectively. Adult An. stephensi was also resistant to pyrethroid insecticides with mortality rates 67% for deltamethrin and 53% for permethrin. Resistance to DDT and malathion was detected in An. stephensi with mortality rates of 32% as well as An. stephensi was resistance to pirimiphos-methyl with mortality rates 14%. Analysis of the insecticide resistance loci revealed the absence of kdr L1014F and L1014S mutations and the ace1R G119S mutation. Conclusion Overall, these findings support that An. stephensi is resistant to several classes of insecticides, most notably pyrethroids. However, the absence of the kdr L1014 gene may suggest non-target site resistance mechanisms. Continuous insecticide resistance monitoring should be carried out in the region to confirm the documented resistance and exploring mechanisms conferring resistance in An. stephensi in Ethiopia.