A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE OF THE PAST YEAR (1918) ON GENITO-URINARY DISEASES IN CHILDREN
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
bacteriology of the urine Schwartz1 investigated the bacteriology of the urine of children with gastro-intestinal disease, and found that urethral and bladder contamination was very common. This was particularly true of girls, which favors the theory of ascending infection in pyelitis. In sixtythree infants with various gastro-intestinal disturbances, thirty-eight, or 60.3 per cent., showed the presence of gram-negative bacilli in the urine. Of those in which the first and second portions of
... cond portions of the urine were separately cultured, 21.4 per cent, showed a sufficient number of gram-negative bacilli in the second specimen to constitute a bacilluria. Urethral contamination was almost three times as common in girl babies as in boys, while actual bacilluria was twice as preva¬ lent in girls as in boys. ALKAPTONURIA Schochet2 discusses alkaptonuria. About seventy cases of alkaptonuria have been reported in the literature. The term "alkaptonuria" was first introduced by Bodeker in 1857 to describe a substance found in the urine, which possessed two chief characteristics : first, the power to reduce alkaline copper solutions, and secondly, the property of absorbing oxygen from the air in the presence of alkali, and as a result turning to a brown black color. The urine may be clear and a normal color when passed, but later becomes dark brown or finally black on exposure to the air. There is no treatment for the condi¬ tion, and it is of no pathologic significance. It is important, however, in that it may be mistaken for glycosuria. Negative results with fermentation and the polariscope should at once rule out glycosuria. Alkaptonuria must be differentiated from the hemoglobinurias due to drugs (phenol) and diseases (malaria) by the presence of hemo¬ globin in the urine; from the melanurias and hematoporphynurias, 1.