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A PI3K-WIPI2 positive feedback loop allosterically activates LC3 lipidation in autophagy

Dorotea Fracchiolla, Chunmei Chang, James H. Hurley, Sascha Martens
2020 Journal of Cell Biology  
Autophagy degrades cytoplasmic cargo by its delivery to lysosomes within double membrane autophagosomes. Synthesis of the phosphoinositide PI(3)P by the autophagic class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase complex I (PI3KC3-C1) and conjugation of ATG8/LC3 proteins to phagophore membranes by the ATG12–ATG5-ATG16L1 (E3) complex are two critical steps in autophagosome biogenesis, connected by WIPI2. Here, we present a complete reconstitution of these events. On giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), LC3
more » ... esicles (GUVs), LC3 lipidation is strictly dependent on the recruitment of WIPI2 that in turn depends on PI(3)P. Ectopically targeting E3 to membranes in the absence of WIPI2 is insufficient to support LC3 lipidation, demonstrating that WIPI2 allosterically activates the E3 complex. PI3KC3-C1 and WIPI2 mutually promote the recruitment of each other in a positive feedback loop. When both PI 3-kinase and LC3 lipidation reactions were performed simultaneously, positive feedback between PI3KC3-C1 and WIPI2 led to rapid LC3 lipidation with kinetics similar to that seen in cellular autophagosome formation.
doi:10.1083/jcb.201912098 pmid:32437499 fatcat:e2yzflbc2fb6faj7gzgq6wv3ke