M. Pasteur's Treatment of Hydrophobia
BMJ (Clinical Research Edition)
April 2, 1887.] THE BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL. . A ___ We may next proceed to demonstrate that many unusual or pathological cases of growth may be due to the ratios or quantities of growth. In the signs of old age we see altered proportional growth; these first mentioned are almost normal to the time of life, the latter are clearly pathological, as tending to destroy the life of the individual. At the approach of old age we see diminished growth; atrophy of the hair, of the scalp, the skin, the
... lp, the skin, the muscles, and the heart * while fat may either be absorbed or accumulated about the abdomen, etc. At the same time, increased quantities of growth may occur in the prostate, and in the hair bulbs of the chin of the female ; while, in some cases, overgrowth is further seen in the development of epithelioma, sarconil, and cancer. Examples were then given, showing the resiilts of varying ratios in the growth of different tissues. Passing on to consider the causes of curvature in ricketty bones, it was suggested that some are produced by mechanical strain, while others are due to unequal bilateral growth of the shafts. Curves which are only exaggerations of the natural curves, and which are symmetrical, are probably due to unequal bilateral growth, such are seen in children who have never walked, and whose muscles are feeble; further, in such cases the skull is often defective in form, being a bony growth, but slightly acted on by muscles at the part most misshapen. It was shown that Glisson l)ut forward very similar views, and facts concerniing the growth of stems of plants were used as illustrations of the hypothesis. Defects in proportional growth are often seen in teratological specimens. Various specimens were showu iu suppoIrt of this statement; in some cases there was a history of inheritance of the deformity. It was argued that irnheritance was rather that of a stimulus to nutrition than of the pabulum, while the case of an hypertrophied kidney when its fellow had been destroyed by calculus, was an example of attendant proportion of growth from over-supply of blood. Cases of coincident deformities were given, and it was shown that often the brain is likewise defective. Analogies may be made as to the distributioni or seat of the parts affected by a pathological process. Maniy skin-diseases are maculated; affecting small loci of tissue, symmetrically or asymmetrically distributed, among young infants; in the spontaneous movements of many small parts we have evidence that separate scattered loci of braintissue are in action. Some processes are considered pathological when asymmetrical, but not so when symmetrically distiibuted ; sunburn is normal, freckles less so, one-sided pigmentation abnormal. Time is an attribute of growths that may give them an abnormal character, as late or irregular dentition, development of pubic hair before adolescence, premature ossification of the skull, etc. These various considerations lead us to study the forces which control the time, quantity, and kind of growth; for example, the effects of light, pressure, or mechanical irritation, etc. Many examples were given. In conclusion it was shown that rnotor actions may be described in terms of time and quantity of movements, and growth in terms of time, quantity and kind of action in the component parts; and evidence was advanced that these attributes, which give special characters, may be controlled by physical forces. M. PASTEUR'S TREATMEiNET OF HYDROPHOBIA.