Comparing Attitudes toward Improving Performance and Muscularity in Athletes with or without the use of Un-authorized Substances in the both forms of Team and Individual Disciplines
Health Research Journal
For many years, the prevalence of performance-enhancer substances using among athletes is still growing despite many prohibitions, and it seems that psychological factors play a role in it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare the performance enhancement attitude and muscularity in some athletes with and without the use of illegal substance in both forms of team and individual sports. Materials and Methods: The population of the study was male athletes of some individual and
... e individual and team disciplines in Tehran city in 2016. In total of 335 athletes were selected based on available sampling at three levels of beginner, semi-skilled and skilled. Data were collected by two attitude questionnaires of improving performance and desire for muscularity, along with a supplement to the demographic questionnaire, by two groups of athletes with and without use of unauthorized substance. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 22 and one way ANOVA and MANOVA tests. Results: Individual athletes have a higher mean in their desire to muscularity and their two subcomponents (muscle-related behaviors and substance use) are higher than those in the team group. But there was no difference between the attitudes related to muscle building and the attitude component to improving the performance of team and individual athletes. Also, the tendency to muscularity and its two sub-components (muscle related behaviors and performance-enhancer drugs) are higher in the athletes of the team and individual disciplines consuming unauthorized substances than others. About attitude toward improving performance, individual athletes in the group of drug user showed a higher mean than non-consuming group, but in team athletes, there was no difference in attitude toward performance improvement between the two groups. Conclusions: In order to identify and prevent the use of unwanted substances by athletes, the recognition of psychological factors, as well as attention to the nature of team and individuality of exercise, which can affect the attitudes of athletes, is of particular importance.