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Spectrum of impulse control behaviours in Parkinson's disease: pathophysiology and management

Mark John Kelly, Fahd Baig, Michele Tao-Ming Hu, David Okai
2020 Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry  
Impulse control behaviours (ICBs) are a range of behaviours linked by their reward-based, repetitive natures. They can be precipitated in Parkinson's disease (PD) by dopamine replacement therapy, often with detrimental consequences for patients and caregivers. While now a well-recognised non-motor feature of treated PD, much remains unknown about the influence of risk factors, pathophysiological mechanisms, vulnerability factors for specific types of behaviour and the optimal management
more » ... management strategies. Imaging studies have identified structural and functional changes in striatal and prefrontal brain regions, among others. Gene association studies indicate a role for genetic predisposition to PD-ICB. Clinical observational studies have identified potential modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Psychological studies shed light on the neurocognitive domains implicated in PD-ICBs and identify psychosocial determinants that may perpetuate the cycle of impulsive and harm-avoidance behaviours. Based on these results, a range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological management strategies have been trialled in PD-ICBs with varying success. The purpose of this review is to update clinicians on the evidence around the pathophysiology of PD-ICB. We aim to translate our findings into an interpretable biopsychosocial model that can be applied to the clinical assessment and management of individual cases of PD-ICB.
doi:10.1136/jnnp-2019-322453 pmid:32354771 fatcat:sj6a4ujppveslnoqgt4mwweeku