Understanding the Thermal Runaway of Ni-Rich Lithium-Ion Batteries
World Electric Vehicle Journal
The main safety issue pertaining to operating lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) relates to their sensitivity to thermal runaway. This complex multiphysics phenomenon was observed in two commercial 18650 Ni-rich LIBs, namely a Panasonic NCR GA and a LG HG2, which were based on L i ( N i 0.8 C o 0.15 A l 0.05 ) O 2 (NCA) and L i ( N i 0.8 M n 0.1 C o 0.1 ) O 2 (NMC811), respectively, for positive electrodes, in combination with graphite-SiOx composite negative electrodes. At pristine state, the
... e state, the batteries were charged to different levels of state of charge (SOC) (100% and 50%) and were investigated through thermal abuse tests in quasi-adiabatic conditions of accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). The results confirmed the proposed complete thermal runaway of exothermic chain reactions. The different factors impacting the thermal runaway kinetics were also studied by considering the intertwined impacts of SOC and the related properties of these highly reactive Ni-rich technologies. All tested cells started their accelerated thermal runaway stage at the same self-heating temperature rate of ~48 °C/min. Regardless of technology, cells at reduced SOC are less reactive. Regardless of SOC levels, the Panasonic NCR GA battery technology had a wider safe region than that of the LG HG2 battery. This technology also delayed the hard internal short circuit and shifted the final venting to a higher temperature. However, above this critical temperature, it exhibited the most severe irreversible self-heating stage, with the highest self-heating temperature rate over the longest duration.