Dependence Between Extreme Rainfall Events and the Seasonality and Bivariate Properties of Floods. A Continuous Distributed Physically-Based Approach
This paper focuses on proposing the minimum number of storms necessary to derive the extreme flood hydrographs accurately through event-based modelling. To do so, we analyzed the results obtained by coupling a continuous stochastic weather generator (the Advanced WEather GENerator) with a continuous distributed physically-based hydrological model (the TIN-based real-time integrated basin simulator), and by simulating 5000 years of hourly flow at the basin outlet. We modelled the outflows in a
... the outflows in a basin named Peacheater Creek located in Oklahoma, USA. Afterwards, we separated the independent rainfall events within the 5000 years of hourly weather forcing, and obtained the flood event associated to each storm from the continuous hourly flow. We ranked all the rainfall events within each year according to three criteria: Total depth, maximum intensity, and total duration. Finally, we compared the flood events obtained from the continuous simulation to those considering the N highest storm events per year according to the three criteria and by focusing on four different aspects: Magnitude and recurrence of the maximum annual peak-flow and volume, seasonality of floods, dependence among maximum peak-flows and volumes, and bivariate return periods. The main results are: (a) Considering the five largest total depth storms per year generates the maximum annual peak-flow and volume, with a probability of 94% and 99%, respectively and, for return periods higher than 50 years, the probability increases to 99% in both cases; (b) considering the five largest total depth storms per year the seasonality of flood is reproduced with an error of less than 4% and (c) bivariate properties between the peak-flow and volume are preserved, with an error on the estimation of the copula fitted of less than 2%.