Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous-Derived Astaxanthin Regulates Lipid Metabolism and Gut Microbiota in Obese Mice Induced by A High-Fat Diet
Astaxanthin is an important antioxidant with many biological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and immuno-modulatory activities. Most of these biological activities are derived from (3S,3′S)-astaxanthin, while the activities of (3R,3′R)-astaxanthin are rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of (3R,3′R)-astaxanthin on lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in mice fed with a high-fat diet. In this work, 40 male C57BL/6 mice were divided
... 6 mice were divided into 8 groups fed a high-fat diet supplemented or not with (3R,3′R)-astaxanthin or Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous for 8 weeks. The weight gain, energy intake, fat index, plasma triacylglycerol and cholesterol, liver triacylglycerol and cholesterol, and gut microbiota were determined. The results showed that the addition of (3R,3′R)-astaxanthin/X. dendrorhous to the high-fat diet as a supplement prevented weight gain, reduced plasma and liver triacylglycerol, and decreased plasma and liver total cholesterol. The addition of (3R,3′R)-astaxanthin/X. dendrorhous also regulated the gut microbiota of the mice, which optimized the ratio of Bacteroides to Firmicutes and increased the content of Verrucomicrobia, especially Akkermansia. The changes in the gut microflora achieved a healthier structure, thus reducing the incidence of obesity. Thus (3R,3′R)-Astaxanthin has the function of regulating lipid metabolism and gut microbiota to prevent obesity caused by a high-fat diet. The production strain of (3R,3′R)-astaxanthin, X. dendrorhous, has the same function as astaxanthin in preventing obesity caused by a high-fat diet, which reflects its potential ability as a probiotic drug.