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The discovery of buckyballs was unexpected because the researchers were delivering carbon plasmas to reproduce and describe unidentified interstellar matter. Density functional theory was done to study and design the structure of circulene and three new buckyballs with molecular dimensions of less than a nanometer. Cyclic polymerization reactions can be utilized to prepare new buckyballs, and this process also produces molecules of hydrogen. All reactions are spontaneous and exothermic asdoi:10.1080/23312009.2015.1026638 fatcat:m3bszdcvxncdzirhutewar27eq