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Molecular Mechanisms of AKI in the Elderly: From Animal Models to Therapeutic Intervention

Barbara Infante, Rossana Franzin, Desirèe Madio, Martina Calvaruso, Annamaria Maiorano, Fabio Sangregorio, Giuseppe Stefano Netti, Elena Ranieri, Loreto Gesualdo, Giuseppe Castellano, Giovanni Stallone
2020 Journal of Clinical Medicine  
Acute kidney injury (AKI), a critical syndrome characterized by a sudden reduction of renal function, is a common disorder among elderly patients particularly in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). AKI is closely associated with both short- and long-term mortality and length of hospital stay and is considered a predictor of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Specific hemodynamic, metabolic, and molecular changes lead to increased susceptibility to injury in the aged kidney; therefore, certain causes of AKI
more » ... ain causes of AKI such as the prerenal reduction in renal perfusion or vascular obstructive conditions are more common in the elderly; moreover, AKI is often multifactorial and iatrogenic. Older patients present several comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, heart failure) and are exposed to multiple medical interventions such as the use of nephrotoxic contrasts media and medications, which can also trigger AKI. Considering the emerging relevance of this condition, prevention and treatment of AKI in the elderly should be crucial in the internist and emergency setting. This review article summarizes the incidence, the risk factors, the pathophysiology, the molecular mechanisms and the strategies of prevention and treatment of AKI in elderly patients.
doi:10.3390/jcm9082574 pmid:32784471 fatcat:hdtx2ocx2be5fiw3hnpxe6i4be