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Implications of Extended Inhibitory Neuron Development

Jae-Yeon Kim, Mercedes F. Paredes
2021 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
A prolonged developmental timeline for GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-expressing inhibitory neurons (GABAergic interneurons) is an amplified trait in larger, gyrencephalic animals. In several species, the generation, migration, and maturation of interneurons take place over several months, in some cases persisting after birth. The late integration of GABAergic interneurons occurs in a region-specific pattern, especially during the early postnatal period. These changes can contribute to the
more » ... ute to the formation of functional connectivity and plasticity, especially in the cortical regions responsible for higher cognitive tasks. In this review, we discuss GABAergic interneuron development in the late gestational and postnatal forebrain. We propose the protracted development of interneurons at each stage (neurogenesis, neuronal migration, and network integration), as a mechanism for increased complexity and cognitive flexibility in larger, gyrencephalic brains. This developmental feature of interneurons also provides an avenue for environmental influences to shape neural circuit formation.
doi:10.3390/ijms22105113 pmid:34066025 fatcat:tnzjgqhz3ngz3pwsoe3tdatzt4