Filters








1 Hit in 0.031 sec

Direct and Expeditious Methods of Calculating the Excentric from the Mean Anomaly of a Planet [Abstract] [abstract]

Abram Robertson
1815 Abstracts of the Papers Printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London  
Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the mid--seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non--commercial purposes. Read more about Early Journal
more » ... out Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate--jstor/individuals/early-journal--content. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not--for--profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. 7 no regular interval between the shocks, which sometimes followed so quickly as not to be counted, while other animals could scarcely be provoked to give any shock. The electric discharge was mostly accompanied by an evident muscular action in the animal, withl an apparent swelling of the superior surface of the organs, and by a retraction of the eyes. Two of these fish being placed in different buckets of water, one, which was irritated so as to give frequently repeated shocks, soon became languid, its shocks diminishing rapidly in intensity, and it soon died; but the other. not being irritated, continued living to the third day. And this was universally observable, that those which' parted with shocks most freely soonest died. A Torpedo, in which the nerves proceeding to the electric organs had been divided, seemed to have no power of giving shocks, but appeared just as lively as another Torpedo taken at the same time, and placed in a separate bucket of water uninjured. Of two Torpedos taken at the same time, one had the electric organs divided. They were then both irritated equally, so that the perfect animal was soon exhausted of all power, and died; but the other, which had lost the power of giving shocks, appeared as vivacious as before, and lived to the second day. An animal, from which one electric organ had been removed, was found still capable of giving shocks, though possibly not so strong as before. Another fish, in which only one nerve to each organ had been divided, was also able to give shocks as before. When they were held only by the tail or by the extremity of their lateral fins, they appeared to have no power of giving shocks. Mr. Todd infers from these experiments, That the electric discharge is a vital action. That it is perfectly voluntary. That frequent action is injurious to life, and may soon exhaust it. That an animal deprived of this power is more vivacious, and lives longer than one which exerts this means of exhausting itself. That both organs are not necessary for giving the shock. That all the nerves of one organ are not necessary to be entire. That a most intimate relation subsists between the nervous system and the electric organs.
fatcat:k3upclxarvhdxomnutvyxgmowa