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Low-Income Classes

R. Clyde White
1942 American Journal of Sociology  
LOW-INCOME CLASSES R.  ...  LOW-INCOME CLASSES g21 elimination of all deficit incomes.  ... 
doi:10.1086/219046 fatcat:wfo6hmvajvcodgdppb3zvh6yda

Income Inequality and Income-Class Consumption Patterns

LaVaughn M. Henry
2014 Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Economic Commentary  
This Commentary investigates whether there has been a growing divergence in the consumption of luxury and necessity goods across income classes.  ...  in the face of higher prices of such goods and stagnant income growth.  ...  The categories included Because of the signifi cant changes in the rate of income growth by income class over the last few decades, the consumption patterns of different income classes may also have changed  ... 
doi:10.26509/frbc-ec-201418 fatcat:jcj7ofkyonap3mi6uptwwccqhq

Income, race, and class

Sarita Yardi, Amy Bruckman
2012 Proceedings of the 2012 ACM annual conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI '12  
We interviewed middle to upper class, suburban, white American parents and low-income, urban, African-American parents to understand how each group incorporates technology into their lives.  ...  SES relates to class, or social class, and is a function of many individual properties including income, education, employment, race, neighborhood, and lifestyle.  ...  The recruiting pool we drew from was middle and upper class families. The average median income in the school we partnered with is just over twice that of the average median income in the U.S.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2207676.2208716 dblp:conf/chi/YardiB12 fatcat:dwihyvxzs5gpvajqzfhs67yybq

Race, Class, and Income Inequality

Erik Olin Wright
1978 American Journal of Sociology  
In the study of income inequality this implies that class relations organize the structure of income inequality in the sense that class position shapes the ways in which other causes influence income.  ...  between Races within Class Categories TOTAL ANNUAL, INCOME mean income Eq(l) Eq(2) L All Respondents Gap in income 5308 3698 1868 Black expected income as percent of white expected  ... 
doi:10.1086/226705 fatcat:fqjninjxizdtjnr76w5zsivbay

Race, Class, and Income Inequality [chapter]

Erik Olin Wright
1982 Classes, Power, and Conflict  
In the study of income inequality this implies that class relations organize the structure of income inequality in the sense that class position shapes the ways in which other causes influence income.  ...  between Races within Class Categories TOTAL ANNUAL, INCOME mean income Eq(l) Eq(2) L All Respondents Gap in income 5308 3698 1868 Black expected income as percent of white expected  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-349-16801-9_25 fatcat:bxhqozgfpve3jota5liabwrevm

Education, class structure and income equality

Jagdish Bhagwati
1973 World Development  
Education, Class Structure L? Income Equality latter groups, the participation rates are likely to be linked to the income level.  ...  It should be noted again that the correlation between ranking by 'castes and by income classes is not necessarily strong throughout India.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0305-750x(73)90121-6 fatcat:jwqbjqfjnvb6zp42l7fhiss3a4

Income Distribution and the Class Struggle

2009 Institute of Development Studies Bulletin  
Thus, when we speak of changes in the distribution of income, we must also sneak of class conflict and of the organization of those whom we consider to be denrived in society.  ...  From such an assumPtion it follows that changes in income distribution arise when the relative bargaining strength of classes or grouPs changes, through the rise of a trade union movement, for example,  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1759-5436.1972.mp42-3001.x fatcat:dwdghna3lfartl62e2scsqus2m

Marxist Class Categories and Income Inequality

Erik Olin Wright, Luca Perrone
1977 American Sociological Review  
Marxist Class Categories and Income Inequality. American Sociological Review, 42 (1) 32-55.  ...  It was found that there is a substanial interaction between class position and the income returns to education; within class categories, however, there are no differences between race and sex groups in  ...  Status and class alone each explain just over 14% of the variance in income.  ... 
doi:10.2307/2117730 fatcat:vqcr6w4kdfedhbq465lpemqfuq

DISTRIBUTIONS OF REAL INCOME: WITHIN COUNTRIES AND BY WORLD INCOME CLASSES

Pan A. Yotopoulos
1989 The Review of Income and Wealth  
for some) is that the "affluent" class (and those above "middle class" income levels) has (prematurely) swelled in a number of developing countries.  ...  The density of realincome equivalent groups (socio-economic classes) across countries is measured for the "affluent," the "well-off," and the "poor."  ...  the middle classes.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1475-4991.1989.tb00598.x fatcat:e3dnkm6fozcrbp4oeknfyfko4i

THE TAX BURDEN BY INCOME CLASS, 1958

GEORGE A. BISHOP
1961 National tax journal  
THE TAX BURDEN BY INCOME CLASS, 1958 GEORGE A. BISHOP * TUDIES of the distribution of the tax burden by income class have a history of several decades.  ...  by income class (Table A2, cols. 7 and 8).  ... 
doi:10.1086/ntj41790829 fatcat:hash7fepj5hlbgm4f2rccpoese

Basic Income, Stakeholder Grants, and Class Analysis

Erik Olin Wright
2004 Politics & Society  
Basic Income A generous, unconditional basic income which would allow employees a meaningful exit option from the employment relation directly transforms the character of power within the class relations  ...  In this theoretical and normative context, both Stakeholder Grants and Unconditional Basic Income (UBI) can be thought of as strategies of potentially transforming class relations within capitalism in  ... 
doi:10.1177/0032329203261099 fatcat:goatejfz3zd4tnmtk4dc5aqlii

Income inequality measures and the middle class

Oleg I. Pavlov, Olga Yu. Pavlova, V.M. Matyushok
2021 SHS Web of Conferences  
We study how the presence of the middle class in the sense of Gevorgyan-Malykhin affects the value of income inequality measures including the Gini coefficient J and the Hoover index H.  ...  It is proved that in the presence of the middle class (1) $J \leqslant \frac{1}{2}\frac{{L'\left( 0 \right)}}{2}$ (where L is the Lorenz function), (2) $H \leqslant \frac{1}{2}$, (3) the longest vertical  ...  Conclusions We established that the presence of the middle class in the sense of Gevorgyan-Malykhin strongly influences various income inequality measures.  ... 
doi:10.1051/shsconf/202111401019 fatcat:h4jcz65u55c2haedhgqmqasncu

Measuring Social Tension from Income Class Segregation

Yoonseok Lee, Donggyun Shin
2016 Journal of business & economic statistics  
We develop an index that effectively measures the level of social tension generated by income class segregation.  ...  We adopt the basic concepts of between-group difference (or alienation) and within-group similarity (or identification) from the income [bi]polarization literature; but we allow for asymmetric degrees  ...  phenomenon of the disappearing middle class and formation of two segregated income groups, the poor and the rich.  ... 
doi:10.1080/07350015.2015.1051624 fatcat:ppmgmn55lfen7ahjha5lvnvxj4

Socialism & Universal Basic Income

Bryant W Sculos
2018 Class Race Corporate Power  
The idea of universal basic income (UBI) has taken on new life as people experience greater inequality and greater exploitation than ever before-combined with the recurrence of the historically-cyclical  ...  This essay offers replies to three common socialist criticisms of various basic income proposals, in an effort to defend the radical potential of UBI; a potential that is consonant with the fundamental  ...  /articles/a-guaranteed-income-for-every-american-1464969586.  ... 
doi:10.25148/crcp.6.1.007552 fatcat:ny3dxqnbq5gkrbj5r26bc2i7me

The income and expenditure of the labouring classes

1889 Public Health  
THE INCOME AND EXPENDITURE OF THE LABOURING CLASSES. A~ instructive Blue-book, entitled "Returns of Expenditure of Working Men," has been recently published.  ...  Henry Armstrong by the Rothbury Rural Sanitary Authority must be classed as "malicious."  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0033-3506(89)80161-1 fatcat:pwkedx6gdrblzlahkyq3ve3ftq
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