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Designing a Virtual Reality Model for Aesthetic Surgery

Darren M. Smith, Sherrell J. Aston, Court B. Cutting, Aaron Oliker, Jeffrey Weinzweig
2005 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery  
Aesthetic surgery deals in large part with the manipulation of softtissue structures that are not amenable to visualization by standard technologies. As a result, accurate three-dimensional depictions of relevant surgical anatomy have yet to be developed. This study presents a method for the creation of detailed virtual reality models of anatomy relevant to aesthetic surgery. Methods: Two-dimensional histologic sections of a cadaver from the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project
more » ... ible Human Project were imported into Alias's Maya, a computer modeling and animation software package. These two-dimensional data were then "stacked" as a series of vertical planes. Relevant anatomy was outlined in cross-section on each two-dimensional section, and the resulting outlines were used to generate three-dimensional representations of the structures in Maya. Results: A detailed and accurate threedimensional model of the soft tissues germane to aesthetic surgery was created. This model is optimized for use in surgical animation and can be modified for use in surgical simulators currently being developed. Conclusions: A model of facial anatomy viewable from any angle in three-dimensional space was developed. The model has applications in medical education and, with future work, could play a role in surgi-
doi:10.1097/01.prs.0000176900.62853.b3 pmid:16141834 fatcat:mz36fu6vcfgefjehakxqnos7t4

Contraction-Induced Injury to Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers from Normal and Congenitally-Clefted Goat Palates

Erik P. Rader, Paul S. Cederna, Jeffrey Weinzweig, Kip E. Panter, Deborah Yu, Steven R. Buchman, Lisa M. Larkin, John A. Faulkner
2007 The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal  
Loading abnormalities were possible during the induction of the cleft palate when the fetal neck was hyper-flexed and the tongue was wedged between the palatal shelves (Weinzweig et al., 1999) .  ...  As a consequence, the neck of the fetal goat remained hyperflexed and caused the tongue to obstruct the closure of the palatal shelves resulting in complete clefts of the secondary palates (Weinzweig  ... 
doi:10.1597/06-036.1 pmid:17328650 pmcid:PMC2754850 fatcat:espqcyy4frfi3m7bfw3bm6bupu

Contractile Properties of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers from Congenital Cleft Palates and Normal Palates of Spanish Goats

Michael C. Hanes, Jeffrey Weinzweig, William M. Kuzon, Kip E. Panter, Steven R. Buchman, John A. Faulkner, Deborah Yu, Paul S. Cederna, Lisa M. Larkin
2007 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery  
The cleft palate goat model, developed by Weinzweig et al., used Nicotiana glauca to induce the palatal clefts.  ...  In the congenital cleft palate model, Weinzweig et al. observed degeneration of myofibrils and Z-bands. 8 We hypothesize that intrinsic differences in the levator veli palatini muscle alter the functional  ... 
doi:10.1097/01.prs.0000258832.84261.37 pmid:17440342 pmcid:PMC2703702 fatcat:eptqe3g2bbei5bb3tuqeihjxni

Effect of Cleft Palate Repair on the Susceptibility to Contraction-Induced Injury of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers from Congenitally-Clefted Goat Palates

Erik P. Rader, Paul S. Cederna, William T. McClellan, Stephanie A. Caterson, Kip E. Panter, Deborah Yu, Steven R. Buchman, Lisa M. Larkin, John A. Faulkner, Jeffrey Weinzweig
2008 The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal  
Thus, palatal fusion is physically inhibited in 97% of cases, with complete clefting of the secondary palate in all cases (Weinzweig et al., 1999) .  ...  The abnormal insertion along the posterior edge of the bony palate (Weinzweig et al., 2002) and consequent atypical loading of the LVP muscle in cleft palates of the young goats also must have had no  ... 
doi:10.1597/06-171.1 pmid:18333646 pmcid:PMC2754268 fatcat:rnjxvuv3nzbphmfmsdt4chenii

The Effect of Cleft Palate Repair on Contractile Properties of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers From Congenitally Cleft Goat Palates

Michael C. Hanes, Jeffrey Weinzweig, Kip E. Panter, W Thomas McClellan, Stefanie A. Caterson, Steven R. Buchman, John A. Faulkner, Deborah Yu, Paul S. Cederna, Lisa M. Larkin
2008 Annals of Plastic Surgery  
Weinzweig et al 15 observed degeneration of myofibrils and Z-bands in the goat congenital cleft palate model, which was the animal model for this study.  ...  METHODS AND MATERIALS Congenital Cleft Palate Model This study used animals from 3 groups of the congenital cleft palate goat model developed by Weinzweig et al: young, 2-month-old goats with normal  ... 
doi:10.1097/sap.0b013e318052c6f2 pmid:18216514 pmcid:PMC2734455 fatcat:xcez5atprbbgnf33uzk33n2v6m