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Evolutionary Strategies for the Elucidation ofcisandtransFactors That Regulate the Developmental Switching Programs of the β-like Globin Genes

Deborah L. Gumucio, David A. Shelton, Wei Zhu, David Millinoff, Todd Gray, Jeffrey H. Bock, Jerry L. Slightom, Morris Goodman
1996 Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution  
like globin genes were determined (Collins and Weiss-We describe three strategies for the identification of man, 1984). Sequences of the β globin clusters in specific cis and trans factors that regulate globin gene additional mammals (rabbit, mouse, goat, and galago) expression, all three of which are based on the evolufollowed, providing the basis for a molecular undertion of the globin genes and their expression patterns. standing of the structural evolution of the cluster. As The first
more » ... As The first approach, phylogenetic footprinting, relies sequences from additional species were gathered, the on a search for sequence similarities and is designed β-like globin locus became a valuable tool for the estabto elucidate the factors that control those expression lishment of phylogenetic relationships. patterns which are shared by orthologous globin genes Interest in another aspect of the globin genes, the of all eutherian mammals (e.g., the expression of the regulation of their developmental stage-specific expresglobin genes in the embryonic yolk sac and its repression patterns, began with descriptions of the changing sion in fetal and adult hematopoietic tissues). The seccomposition of the hemoglobin molecule during develond approach, differential phylogenetic footprinting, opment as assessed by electrophoretic separation of the relies on a search for sequence differences. This apvarious globin chains (Bunn and Forget, 1986). It soon proach may be of value in identifying the mechanisms became clear that each globin gene is expressed in a underlying the generation of novel expression patrestricted developmental stage and that these expresterns in specific lineages (e.g., the expression of ␥ as a sion patterns are tightly regulated. Coalescence of exfetal gene in the simian primates in contrast with the pression studies on the RNA and protein level with the embryonic expression of ␥ in all other mammals). Fistructural studies of the β-like globin locus soon estabnally, motif-based phylogenetic analysis takes into lished that the five active genes of the human β globin consideration the fact that many transcription factors cluster are arranged on the chromosome in the order are quite flexible in the recognition of their cognate sites. The approach allows the detection of function-of their developmental expression (Fig. 1A) . The most ally conserved binding sites despite their sequence 5′ gene in the human cluster, ε, is expressed in early variation.
doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0004 pmid:8673285 fatcat:vs2uhthtjfc4vb7hrwj3mmr2q4

Randomized Trial of Time-Limited Interruptions of Protease Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) vs. Continuous Therapy for HIV-1 Infection

Cynthia Firnhaber, Livio Azzoni, Andrea S. Foulkes, Robert Gross, Xiangfan Yin, Desiree Van Amsterdam, Doreen Schulze, Deborah K. Glencross, Wendy Stevens, Gillian Hunt, Lynn Morris, Lawrence Fox (+3 others)
2011 PLoS ONE  
The clinical outcomes of short interruptions of PI-based ART regimens remains undefined. Methods: A 2-arm non-inferiority trial was conducted on 53 HIV-1 infected South African participants with viral load ,50 copies/ml and CD4 T cell count .450 cells/ml on stavudine (or zidovudine), lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. Subjects were randomized to a) sequential 2, 4 and 8-week ART interruptions or b) continuous ART (cART). Primary analysis was based on the proportion of CD4 count .350
more » ... unt .350 cells(c)/ml over 72 weeks. Adherence, HIV-1 drug resistance, and CD4 count rise over time were analyzed as secondary endpoints. Results: The proportions of CD4 counts .350 cells/ml were 82.12% for the intermittent arm and 93.73 for the cART arm; the difference of 11.95% was above the defined 10% threshold for non-inferiority (upper limit of 97.5% CI, 24.1%; 2-sided CI: 20.16, 23.1). No clinically significant differences in opportunistic infections, adverse events, adherence or viral resistance were noted; after randomization, long-term CD4 rise was observed only in the cART arm. Conclusion: We are unable to conclude that short PI-based ART interruptions are non-inferior to cART in retention of immune reconstitution; however, short interruptions did not lead to a greater rate of resistance mutations or adverse events than cART suggesting that this regimen may be more forgiving than NNRTIs if interruptions in therapy occur.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021450 pmid:21738668 pmcid:PMC3125169 fatcat:nizgz7j2xjcnpedeib7hrkxb3y

HIV Surveillance in a Large, Community-Based Study: Results from the Pilot Study of Project Accept (HIV Prevention Trials Network 043)

Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Agnes Fiamma, Oliver Laeyendecker, Michal Kulich, Deborah Donnell, Greg Szekeres, Laura Robins-Morris, Caroline E Mullis,, Ana Vallari, John Hackett, Timothy D Mastro, Glenda Gray (+7 others)
2011 BMC Infectious Diseases  
Project Accept is a community randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of community mobilization, mobile testing, same-day results, and post-test support for the prevention of HIV infection in Thailand, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and South Africa. We evaluated the accuracy of in-country HIV rapid testing and determined HIV prevalence in the Project Accept pilot study. Methods: Two HIV rapid tests were performed in parallel in local laboratories. If the first two rapid tests were
more » ... ests were discordant (one reactive, one non-reactive), a third HIV rapid test or enzyme immunoassay was performed. Samples were designated HIV NEG if the first two tests were non-reactive, HIV DISC if the first two tests were discordant, and HIV POS if the first two tests were reactive. Samples were re-analyzed in the United States using a panel of laboratory tests.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-251 pmid:21943026 pmcid:PMC3198953 fatcat:gibbowgjindzrdvkkoodrljjhy

Correspondence Between Perceived Pubertal Development and Hormone Levels in 9-10 Year-Olds From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study

Megan M. Herting, Kristina A. Uban, Marybel Robledo Gonzalez, Fiona C. Baker, Eric C. Kan, Wesley K. Thompson, Douglas A. Granger, Matthew D. Albaugh, Andrey P. Anokhin, Kara S. Bagot, Marie T. Banich, Deanna M. Barch (+74 others)
2021 Frontiers in Endocrinology  
AimTo examine individual variability between perceived physical features and hormones of pubertal maturation in 9–10-year-old children as a function of sociodemographic characteristics.MethodsCross-sectional metrics of puberty were utilized from the baseline assessment of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study—a multi-site sample of 9–10 year-olds (n = 11,875)—and included perceived physical features via the pubertal development scale (PDS) and child salivary hormone levels
more » ... hormone levels (dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone in all, and estradiol in females). Multi-level models examined the relationships among sociodemographic measures, physical features, and hormone levels. A group factor analysis (GFA) was implemented to extract latent variables of pubertal maturation that integrated both measures of perceived physical features and hormone levels.ResultsPDS summary scores indicated more males (70%) than females (31%) were prepubertal. Perceived physical features and hormone levels were significantly associated with child's weight status and income, such that more mature scores were observed among children that were overweight/obese or from households with low-income. Results from the GFA identified two latent factors that described individual differences in pubertal maturation among both females and males, with factor 1 driven by higher hormone levels, and factor 2 driven by perceived physical maturation. The correspondence between latent factor 1 scores (hormones) and latent factor 2 scores (perceived physical maturation) revealed synchronous and asynchronous relationships between hormones and concomitant physical features in this large young adolescent sample.ConclusionsSociodemographic measures were associated with both objective hormone and self-report physical measures of pubertal maturation in a large, diverse sample of 9–10 year-olds. The latent variables of pubertal maturation described a complex interplay between perceived physical changes and hormone levels that hallmark sexual maturation, which future studies can examine in relation to trajectories of brain maturation, risk/resilience to substance use, and other mental health outcomes.
doi:10.3389/fendo.2020.549928 pmid:33679599 pmcid:PMC7930488 fatcat:rp6z6vjiprgnhintcgckfux6mi

Common variants at the MHC locus and at chromosome 16q24.1 predispose to Barrett's esophagus

Zhan Su, Laura J Gay, Amy Strange, Claire Palles, Gavin Band, David C Whiteman, Francesco Lescai, Cordelia Langford, Manoj Nanji, Sarah Edkins, Anouk van der Winkel, David Levine (+132 others)
2012 Nature Genetics  
Barrett's Esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia. Barrett's Esophagus strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumour with a very poor prognosis. We have undertaken the first genome-wide association study on Barrett's Esophagus, comprising 1,852 UK cases and 5,172 UK controls in discovery and 5,986 cases and 12,825 controls in the replication. Two regions were associated with disease risk:
more » ... with disease risk: chromosome 6p21, rs9257809 (P combined =4.09×10 −9 , OR(95%CI) =1.21(1.13-1.28)) and chromosome 16q24, rs9936833 (P combined =2.74×10 −10 , OR(95%CI) =1.14(1.10-1.19)). The top SNP on chromosome 6p21 is within the major histocompatibility complex, and the closest protein-coding gene to rs9936833 on chromosome 16q24 is FOXF1, which is implicated in esophageal development and structure. We found evidence that the genetic component of Barrett's Esophagus is mediated by many common variants of small effect and that SNP alleles predisposing to obesity also increase risk for Barrett's Esophagus. .) monitored the appropriate use of samples and data from these studies. A. van der Winkel, N.T., M.P.Peppelenbosch, L.J.
doi:10.1038/ng.2408 pmid:22961001 pmcid:PMC3459818 fatcat:mud5ejz6yzgwpcmacot36g24dy

Image processing and analysis methods for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study

Donald J. Hagler, SeanN. Hatton, M. Daniela Cornejo, Carolina Makowski, Damien A. Fair, Anthony Steven Dick, Matthew T. Sutherland, B.J. Casey, Deanna M. Barch, Michael P. Harms, Richard Watts, James M. Bjork (+131 others)
2019 NeuroImage  
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is an ongoing, nationwide study of the effects of environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in adolescents. The main objective of the study is to recruit and assess over eleven thousand 9-10-year-olds and follow them over the course of 10 years to characterize normative brain and cognitive development, the many factors that influence brain development, and the effects of those factors on mental health and other outcomes.
more » ... and other outcomes. The study employs state-of-the-art multimodal brain imaging, cognitive and clinical assessments, bioassays, and careful assessment of substance use, environment, psychopathological symptoms, and social functioning. The data is a resource of unprecedented scale and depth for studying typical and atypical development. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the baseline neuroimaging processing and subject-level analysis methods used by ABCD. Processing and analyses include modality-specific corrections for distortions and motion, brain segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), analysis of brain microstructure using diffusion MRI (dMRI), task-related analysis of functional MRI (fMRI), and functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI. This manuscript serves as a methodological reference for users of publicly shared neuroimaging data from the ABCD Study.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116091 pmid:31415884 pmcid:PMC6981278 fatcat:goab4m7k7vdfthmliwd6sgsfy4

Image processing and analysis methods for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study [article]

Donald J Hagler, Sean N. Hatton, Carolina Makowski, M. Daniela Cornejo, Damien A. Fair, Anthony Steven Dick, Matthew T. Sutherland, B.J. Casey, Deanna M. Barch, Michael P. Harms, Richard Watts, James M. Bjork (+130 others)
2018 bioRxiv   pre-print
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is an ongoing, nationwide study of the effects of environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in adolescents. The ABCD Study is a collaborative effort, including a Coordinating Center, 21 data acquisition sites across the United States, and a Data Analysis and Informatics Center (DAIC). The main objective of the study is to recruit and assess over eleven thousand 9-10-year-olds and follow them over the course of 10 years
more » ... ourse of 10 years to characterize normative brain and cognitive development, the many factors that influence brain development, and the effects of those factors on mental health and other outcomes. The study employs state-of-the-art multimodal brain imaging, cognitive and clinical assessments, bioassays, and careful assessment of substance use, environment, psychopathological symptoms, and social functioning. The data will provide a resource of unprecedented scale and depth for studying typical and atypical development. Here, we describe the baseline neuroimaging processing and subject-level analysis methods used by the ABCD DAIC in the centralized processing and extraction of neuroanatomical and functional imaging phenotypes. Neuroimaging processing and analyses include modality-specific corrections for distortions and motion, brain segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), analysis of brain microstructure using diffusion MRI (dMRI), task-related analysis of functional MRI (fMRI), and functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI.
doi:10.1101/457739 fatcat:4fbtgd4esrhcnk6csxpbdkjuui

Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium: Accelerating Evidence-Based Practice of Genomic Medicine

Robert C. Green, Katrina A.B. Goddard, Gail P. Jarvik, Laura M. Amendola, Paul S. Appelbaum, Jonathan S. Berg, Barbara A. Bernhardt, Leslie G. Biesecker, Sawona Biswas, Carrie L. Blout, Kevin M. Bowling, Kyle B. Brothers (+267 others)
2016 American Journal of Human Genetics  
Despite rapid technical progress and demonstrable effectiveness for some types of diagnosis and therapy, much remains to be learned about clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) and its role within the practice of medicine. The Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) consortium includes 18 extramural research projects, one National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) intramural project, and a coordinating center funded by the NHGRI and National Cancer Institute. The consortium
more » ... e. The consortium is exploring analytic and clinical validity and utility, as well as the ethical, legal, and social implications of sequencing via multidisciplinary approaches; it has thus far recruited 5,577 participants across a spectrum of symptomatic and healthy children and adults by utilizing both germline and cancer sequencing. The CSER consortium is analyzing data and creating publically available procedures and tools related to participant preferences and consent, variant classification, disclosure and management of primary and secondary findings, health outcomes, and integration with electronic health records. Future research directions will refine measures of clinical utility of CGES in both germline and somatic testing, evaluate the use of CGES for screening in healthy individuals, explore the penetrance of pathogenic variants through extensive phenotyping, reduce discordances in public databases of genes and variants, examine social and ethnic disparities in the provision of genomics services, explore regulatory issues, and estimate the value and downstream costs of sequencing. The CSER consortium has established a shared community of research sites by using diverse approaches to pursue the evidence-based development of best practices in genomic medicine.
doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.04.011 pmid:27181682 pmcid:PMC4908179 fatcat:b5jc3skrhjfqbnqumlcufiirsi

Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium: Accelerating Evidence-Based Practice of Genomic Medicine

Robert C. Green, Katrina A.B. Goddard, Gail P. Jarvik, Laura M. Amendola, Paul S. Appelbaum, Jonathan S. Berg, Barbara A. Bernhardt, Leslie G. Biesecker, Sawona Biswas, Carrie L. Blout, Kevin M. Bowling, Kyle B. Brothers (+267 others)
2016 American Journal of Human Genetics  
Despite rapid technical progress and demonstrable effectiveness for some types of diagnosis and therapy, much remains to be learned about clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) and its role within the practice of medicine. The Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) consortium includes 18 extramural research projects, one National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) intramural project, and a coordinating center funded by the NHGRI and National Cancer Institute. The consortium
more » ... e. The consortium is exploring analytic and clinical validity and utility, as well as the ethical, legal, and social implications of sequencing via multidisciplinary approaches; it has thus far recruited 5,577 participants across a spectrum of symptomatic and healthy children and adults by utilizing both germline and cancer sequencing. The CSER consortium is analyzing data and creating publically available procedures and tools related to participant preferences and consent, variant classification, disclosure and management of primary and secondary findings, health outcomes, and integration with electronic health records. Future research directions will refine measures of clinical utility of CGES in both germline and somatic testing, evaluate the use of CGES for screening in healthy individuals, explore the penetrance of pathogenic variants through extensive phenotyping, reduce discordances in public databases of genes and variants, examine social and ethnic disparities in the provision of genomics services, explore regulatory issues, and estimate the value and downstream costs of sequencing. The CSER consortium has established a shared community of research sites by using diverse approaches to pursue the evidence-based development of best practices in genomic medicine.
doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.06.002 pmid:27392080 pmcid:PMC5005464 fatcat:ntegs3yfybbpjet2vwwmy6gbxq

A Method to Exploit the Structure of Genetic Ancestry Space to Enhance Case-Control Studies

Corneliu A. Bodea, Benjamin M. Neale, Stephan Ripke, Mark J. Daly, Bernie Devlin, Kathryn Roeder, Murray Barclay, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Mathias Chamaillard, Jean-Frederick Colombel, Mario Cottone, Anthony Croft (+341 others)
2016 American Journal of Human Genetics  
One goal of human genetics is to understand the genetic basis of disease, a challenge for diseases of complex inheritance because risk alleles are few relative to the vast set of benign variants. Risk variants are often sought by association studies in which allele frequencies in case subjects are contrasted with those from population-based samples used as control subjects. In an ideal world we would know population-level allele frequencies, releasing researchers to focus on case subjects. We
more » ... case subjects. We argue this ideal is possible, at least theoretically, and we outline a path to achieving it in reality. If such a resource were to exist, it would yield ample savings and would facilitate the effective use of data repositories by removing administrative and technical barriers. We call this concept the Universal Control Repository Network (UNICORN), a means to perform association analyses without necessitating direct access to individual-level control data. Our approach to UNICORN uses existing genetic resources and various statistical tools to analyze these data, including hierarchical clustering with spectral analysis of ancestry; and empirical Bayesian analysis along with Gaussian spatial processes to estimate ancestry-specific allele frequencies. We demonstrate our approach using tens of thousands of control subjects from studies of Crohn disease, showing how it controls false positives, provides power similar to that achieved when all control data are directly accessible, and enhances power when control data are limiting or even imperfectly matched ancestrally. These results highlight how UNICORN can enable reliable, powerful, and convenient genetic association analyses without access to the individual-level data.
doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.02.025 pmid:27087321 pmcid:PMC4864319 fatcat:l6cybjzxnzaw5aum7cy4u6mjz4

Dissociations of the Fluocinolone Acetonide Implant: The Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial and Follow-up Study

Janet T. Holbrook, Elizabeth A. Sugar, Alyce E. Burke, Albert T. Vitale, Jennifer E. Thorne, Janet L. Davis, Douglas A. Jabs, Glenn J. Jaffe, Brenda Branchaud, Paul Hahn, Larry Koreen, Eleonora (Nora) M. Lad (+543 others)
2016 American Journal of Ophthalmology  
Purpose-To describe fluocinolone acetonide implant dissociations in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial. Design-Randomized clinical trial with extended follow-up. Methods-Review of data collected on the first implant in the eye(s) of participants. Dissociation was defined as the drug pellet no longer being affixed to the strut and categorized as spontaneous or surgically-related. Results-250 eyes (146 patients) had at least one implant placed. Median time follow-up time after
more » ... ollow-up time after implant placement was 6 years (range 0.5 to 9.2). Thirty-four dissociations were reported in 30 participants. There were 22 spontaneous events in 22 participants; 6-year cumulative risk of a spontaneous dissociation was 4.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4%-9.1%). The earliest event occurred 4.8 years after placement. Nine of 22 eyes with data had a decline in visual acuity ≥5 letters temporally related to the dissociation. 39 implant removal surgeries were performed, 33 with replacement. Twelve dissociations were noted during implant removal surgeries in 10 participants (26%, 95% CI 15%-48%); 5 of these eyes had a decline in visual acuity ≥5 letters after surgery. The time from implant placement to removal surgery was longer for the surgeries at which dissociated implants were identified than for those without one (5.7 vs 3.7 years, p < 0.001). Overall, visual acuity declined 15 or more letters from pre-implant values in 22% of affected eyes; declines were frequently associated with complications of uveitis or it's treatment. Conclusion-There is an increasing risk of dissociation of Retisert implants during follow-up, the risk is greater with removal/exchange surgeries, but both the risk of spontaneous and surgically related events increase with longevity of the implants. In 22% of affected eyes visual acuity declined by 15 letters. In the context of eyes with moderate to severe uveitis for years, this rate is not unexpected. Holbrook et al.
doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2015.12.028 pmid:26748056 pmcid:PMC4811688 fatcat:c37bu3me2nfvhjg75vhflsiemm

Proceedings from the 9th annual conference on the science of dissemination and implementation

David Chambers, Lisa Simpson, Gila Neta, Ulrica von Thiele Schwarz, Antoinette Percy-Laurry, Gregory A. Aarons, Gila Neta, Ross Brownson, Amanda Vogel, Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Kenneth Sherr, Rachel Sturke (+633 others)
2017 Implementation Science  
Lay Health Advisor (LHA) Program for African American women: advancing understanding of the implementation and sustainability of LHA programs in community settings Rachel Shelton 1 , Lina Jandorf 2 , Deborah  ...  method for rapid dissemination and implementation: the primary care extension program Sarah Ono 1,2 , Benjamin Crabtree 3 , Leah Gordon 1 , William Miller 4 , Bijal Balasubramanian 5 , Leif Solberg 6 , Deborah  ... 
doi:10.1186/s13012-017-0575-y fatcat:qlai6rpdhffivnljy72jc3a62m

Abstract

Mike van der Wal, Scott A. Lang, Ray W. Yip, Frances L. Chow, Peter G. Duncan, Robert A. Perverseff, Lesley-Ann L. Crone, Robert A. Verity, Jim Flath, David L. Twist, William E. Code, Jim Thornhill (+345 others)
1993 Canadian Journal of Anesthesia  
.* Doreen Yee MD FRCPC, Deborah Goodall biB ChB Department of Anaesthesia, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, 2075 Bayview Ave., Toronto, Ont.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf03020692 fatcat:teoswhi2yfeodc5c6p2twajnwm

Subretinal Hyperreflective Material in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials

Alex S. Willoughby, Gui-shuang Ying, Cynthia A. Toth, Maureen G. Maguire, Russell E. Burns, Juan E. Grunwald, Ebenezer Daniel, Glenn J. Jaffe, David F. Williams, Sara Beardsley, Steven Bennett, Herbert Cantrill (+890 others)
2015 Ophthalmology (Rochester, Minn.)  
Objective-To evaluate the association of subretinal hyper-reflective material (SHRM) with visual acuity (VA), geographic atrophy (GA) and scar in the Comparison of Age related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT) Design-Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial. Participants-The 1185 participants in CATT. Methods-Participants were randomly assigned to ranibizumab or bevacizumab treatment monthly or as-needed. Masked readers graded scar and GA on fundus photography and
more » ... dus photography and fluorescein angiography images, SHRM on time domain (TD) and spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) throughout 104 weeks. Measurements of SHRM height and width in the fovea, within the center 1mm 2 , or outside the center 1mm 2 were obtained on SD-OCT images at 56 (n=76) and 104 (n=66) weeks. VA was measured by certified examiners. Main Outcome Measures-SHRM presence, location and size, and associations with VA, scar, and GA. Results-Among all CATT participants, the percentage with SHRM at enrollment was 77%, decreasing to 68% at 4 weeks after treatment and 54% at 104 weeks. At 104 weeks, scar was present more often in eyes with persistent SHRM than eyes with SHRM that resolved (64% vs. 31%; p<0.0001). Among eyes with detailed evaluation of SHRM at weeks 56 (n=76) and 104 (n=66), mean [SE] VA letter score was 73.5 [2.8], 73.1 [3.4], 65.3 [3.5], and 63.9 [3.7] when SHRM was absent, present outside the central 1mm 2 , present within the central 1mm 2 but not the foveal center, or present at the foveal center (p=0.02). SHRM was present at the foveal center in 43 (30%), within the central 1mm 2 in 21 (15%) and outside the central 1mm 2 in 19 (13%). When SHRM was present, the median maximum height in microns under the fovea, within the central 1 mm 2 including the fovea and anywhere within the scan was 86; 120; and 122, respectively. VA was decreased with greater SHRM height and width (p<0.05). Conclusions-SHRM is common in eyes with NVAMD and often persists after anti-VEGF treatment. At 2 years, eyes with scar were more likely to have SHRM than other eyes. Greater SHRM height and width were associated with worse VA. SHRM is an important morphological biomarker in eyes with NVAMD.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.05.042 pmid:26143666 pmcid:PMC4549177 fatcat:yhsawzf3mzhi3jetnddebfx5mi

A Note of Thanks!

Charles Doris, Adams Jacob, Hayya Adler, James, Andrea Aldrich, Ann Allen, David Allen, Durward Allen, Allen Frances, Allen Robert, Alsobrook Lota, Karen Mark (+827 others)
2009 unpublished
displaying the free-standing photo of Leslie Stringfellow purchased at an auction that began his quest to discover the story of Stringfellow's life, and afterlife.
fatcat:o2cyugvzfvdh7cszlzylsas6bm
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