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Program comprehension is an essential part of any maintenance activity. It allows developers to build mental models of the program before undertaking any change. It has been studied by the research community for many years with the aim to devise models and tools to understand and ease this activity. Recently, researchers have introduced the use of eye-tracking devices to gather and analyze data about the developers' cognitive processes during program comprehension. However, eye-tracking devicesdoi:10.1016/j.scico.2012.01.004 fatcat:kwtgjutyd5atzoqnsw2c7nut74
more »... are not completely reliable and, thus, recorded data sometimes must be processed, filtered, or corrected. Moreover, the analysis software tools packaged with eye-tracking devices are not open-source and do not always provide extension points to seamlessly integrate new sophisticated analyses. Consequently, we develop the Taupe software system to help researchers visualize, analyze, and edit the data recorded by eye-tracking devices. The two main objectives of Taupe are compatibility and extensibility so that researchers can easily: (1) apply the system on any eye-tracking data and (2) extend the system with their own analyses. To meet our objectives, we base the development of Taupe: (1) on well-known good practices, such as design patterns and a plug-in architecture using reflection, (2) on a thorough documentation, validation, and verification process, and (3) on lessons learned from existing analysis software systems. This paper describes the context of development of Taupe, the architectural and design choices made during its development, and its documentation, validation and verification process. It also illustrates the application of Taupe in three experiments on the use of design patterns by developers during program comprehension.
Previous studies have convincingly shown that employees' family lives can affect their work outcomes. We investigate whether family-to-work conflict (FWC) experienced by the employee also affects the turnover intention of a co-worker. We predict that the employee's FWC has an effect on the co-worker's turnover intention through the crossover of positive and negative work attitudes. Using a sample of 154 co-worker dyads, we found that the employee FWC was positively related to co-worker turnoverdoi:10.5267/j.msl.2011.10.008 fatcat:id4czf5nojfy7d5ttbzvzftur4
more »... intention through the crossover of (reduced) work engagement. Results show that family matters at work, affecting employee. In addition, employee's job engagement was positively related to his (her) co-worker job engagement and it was negatively related co-worker turnover intention and employee's FWC was not positively related to co-worker turnover intention trough the crossover of (reduced) feelings of engagement.
http://agile.csc.ncsu.edu/iTrust 7 http://lucene.apache.org/ 8 http://www.suberic.net/pooka/ Nasir Ali, Zohreh Sharafi, Yann-Gaël Guéhéneuc, and Giuliano Antoniol http://mallet.cs.umass.edu ...doi:10.1007/s10664-014-9315-y fatcat:mrji77m6vvfsrgwc4nf4wd2g3u
Professional experience is one of the most important criteria for almost any job offer in software engineering. Professional experience refers both to professional status (practitioner vs. student) and expertise (expert vs. novice). We perform an experiment with 21 subjects including both practitioners and students, and experts and novices. We seek to understand the relation between the speed and accuracy of the subjects and their status and expertise in performing maintenance tasks on UMLdoi:10.1109/icpc.2012.6240484 dblp:conf/iwpc/SohSPPGA12 fatcat:r5pnfdjrk5bavfqnpipa7jbp6m
more »... diagrams. We also study the impact of the formulation of the maintenance task. We use an eye-tracking system to gather the fixations of the subjects when performing the task. We measure the subjects' comprehension using their accuracy, the time spent, the search effort, the overall effort, and the question comprehension effort. We found that (1) practitioners are more accurate than students while students spend around 35 percent less time than practitioners, (2) experts are more accurate than novices while novices spending around 33 percent less time than experts, (3) expertise is the most important factor for accuracy and speed, (4) experienced students are more accurate and spend around 37 percent less time than experienced practitioners, and (5) when the description of the task is precise, the novice students can be accurate. We conclude that it is an illusion for project managers to focus on status only when recruiting a software engineer. Our result is the starting point to consider the differences between status and expertise when studying software engineers' productivity. Thus, it can help project managers to recruit productive engineers and motivated students to acquire the experience and ability in the projects.
Graphical representations are used to visualise, specify, and document software artifacts in all stages of software development process. In contrast with text, graphical representations are presented in two-dimensional form, which seems easy to process. However, few empirical studies investigated the efficiency of graphical representations vs. textual ones in modelling and presenting software requirements. Therefore, in this paper, we report the results of an eye-tracking experiment involvingdoi:10.1109/icpc.2013.6613831 dblp:conf/iwpc/SharafiMSAG13 fatcat:ycv5mmfvibeknoiu54mradc5ze
more »... participants to study the impact of structured textual vs. graphical representations on subjects' efficiency while performing requirement comprehension tasks. We measure subjects' efficiency in terms of the percentage of correct answers (accuracy) and of the time and effort spend to perform the tasks. We observe no statistically-significant difference in term of accuracy. However, our subjects spent more time and effort while working with the graphical representation although this extra time and effort does not affect accuracy. Our findings challenge the general assumption that graphical representations are more efficient than the textual ones at least in the case of developers not familiar with the graphical representation. Indeed, our results emphasise that training can significantly improve the efficiency of our subjects working with graphical representations. Moreover, by comparing the visual paths of our subjects, we observe that the spatial structure of the graphical representation leads our subjects to follow two different strategies (top-down vs. bottomup) and subsequently this hierarchical structure helps developers to ease the difficulty of model comprehension tasks.
one of the leading clinical problems for premature neonates especially with very low birth weight is the type and amount of feeding. The authors aimed to compare outcomes of slow versus rapid feeding in premature neonates hospitalized in Al-Zahra hospital, Rasht. Methods: This is a clinical trial that was conducted on 62 premature neonates aged less than 35 weeks of gestation who were referred to Al-Zahra Hospital from April 2015 to April 2016. They weighed 1000-2000 gr at birth. Samples weredoaj:cfa002764418485e91e73f259211d835 fatcat:gyginfsme5hvxjntvbs4tav65e
more »... ndomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The intervention included neonatal feeding with breast milk or formula with feeding advancement of 30 cc/kg/day which was compared with the routine method of slow feeding (20 cc/kg/day). Neonates were assessed until discharge or the occurrence of Necrotizing enterocolitis. Data were reported by descriptive statistics including mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percent, and analyzed by independent samples t-test and chi-square test in SPSS software, version 22 (IBM SPSS, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: All 62 patients finished the study including 31 neonates weighing 1000-2000 gr at birth in the intervention group and 31 neonates weighing 1000-2000 gr at birth in the control group. Neonates in the intervention group reached to full milk feeding of 150 cc/kg/day sooner (6.06±1.34 versus 9.45±2.39), return to birth weight faster (9.89±3.57 versus 12.9±6.46), had a lower duration of needing parenteral fluids (5.10±1.61 versus 8.86±3.81), and had a lower duration of hospitalization (9.97±4.03 versus 16.87±9.13) compared to controls. Results showed that there was no necrotizing enterocolitis in the intervention and control groups. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that initiating feeding by 30 cc/kg/day method shortened the duration of access to intravenous line and hospitalization and caused sooner discharge. Also, no adverse complication was noted. Therefore, it seems that further investigations assessing these methods can be help mana [...]
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research
In recent years the number of reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Lorestan province, western, Iran has taken an upward turn and some cases of disease have also been reported from Poledokhtar, Boroujerd and Doroud counties. It seems that Poledokhtar County is one of the endemic foci of the disease. Awareness of the ecological situation of the sandflies has a critical role in the control of Leishmaniasis disease. This study aimed to investigate the ecology of vectors of cutaneousfatcat:ycv5q4cd25b4tiehkmxudrv2ru
more »... iasis in the Lorestan province, western Iran. In the present study the sandflies were collected and identified once every two weeks using sticky traps installed in human dwellings, animal dwellings and rodent nests. Our aim was identifying the species of leishmaniasis vectors, the abundance of sand flies to sticky traps and seasonal activities of sandflies. To determine the genus and species, the sand flies were placed on a slide containing a drop of 9 per thousand physiologic serum. After installing 1274 sticky traps a total of 4449 Phlebotomus sandflies were collected and identified from the predetermined locations In order to determine the fauna. From all the samples collected 2696 (60.60%) were male and 1753 (39.40%) were female. 1562 (35.11%) sandflies were collected from indoor dwellings and 2887 (64.89%) were collected from outdoor dwellings. The female phlebotomus Papatasi species was determined as the dominant genus of the region with 3036 cases. These Insects can be a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
2013 21st International Conference on Program Comprehension (ICPC)
Textual Representations in Requirements Comprehension Zohreh Sharafi, Alessandro Marchetto, Angelo Susi, Giuliano Antoniol, and Yann-Gaël Guéhéneuc - Polytechnique Montréal, Canada; Fondazione Bruno Kessler ...doi:10.1109/icpc.2013.6613825 fatcat:r2kdgtpp5rbndh7vxpeyimjsti
Based on these two images, the old route of the Zohreh River can be identified in the study area. ... Any change in the regime and territory of the Zohreh River will have significant economic, social, and security effects in the region. ...doi:10.52547/jeer.11.1.113 fatcat:c2fjb3yhvzgwjks2u4xa5viha4
Zohreh Sohrabi contributed in planning, data analysis, writing, critical revisions of the manuscript was involved in collection of data, and writing the paper. ... Hence, applying new teaching approaches along with a proper leadership method can enhance students' self-efficiency (Banihashemiyan, Golestan Jahromi, Gpk, & Sharafi, 2011) . ...doi:10.5539/gjhs.v8n7p260 pmid:26925916 pmcid:PMC4965669 fatcat:tq6m23mo5bdwdnazcgt27bvuvy
Zohreh Alemansour and Mehdi Zarei. Combined use of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic techniques to identify the impact of a salt diapir on surrounding aquifers, Southern Iran. ... ) , Gaztavileh diapir (Sharafi et al., 2002) , Bastak diapir , and Karmustadje diapir . ... For instance, Sharafi et al. (2002) studied the impact of the Gaztavileh salt diapir on the adjacent karst aquifer and reported that the water quality is degraded by the diapir brine. ...doi:10.4311/2018es0120 fatcat:ffc3mkbmpjhmbfbgwi45cs6lbi
Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving thesedoi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996 pmid:31560378 pmcid:PMC6777271 fatcat:w74ikql7xfabbfguizkmvfepwi
more »... . All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data. To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning. We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence. In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs). The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
Journal of Geography and Urban Space Development
Transportation is one of the preconditions of economic and social development (Sharafi, Yaghafouri, Jafari, & Gordani, 2013) . ...fatcat:s4q3tsp7pfdmfc2ufvimoct2r4
Another teaching of Islam's educational system is keeping balance in our relationships with God, self and others (Sharafi, 1999, p. 22) . The other teaching is to avoid extremism. ...doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.402 fatcat:xldl6yzn7vbttkoekix3fdp5wu
Al-Mekhlafi 38,39 , Khalid Altirkawi 40 , Nelson Alvis-Guzman 41,42 , Adeladza Kofi Amegah 43 , Saeed Amini 44 , Arianna Maever loreche Amit 45,46 , Zohreh Anbari 44 , Sofia Androudi 47 , Mina Anjomshoa ... Antonio 50,51 , Jalal Arabloo 33 , Zohreh Arefi 52 , Olatunde Aremu 53 , Bahram Armoon 54, 55 , Amit Arora 56, 57 , Al Artaman 58 , Anvar Asadi 59 , Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi 60 , Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei ...doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0 pmid:31619795 pmcid:PMC6800389 fatcat:eyvzx34eqndrbjtr755v5bi4pe
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