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Fan, J. Chen, M. Wang, K. Cui, H. Zhou, Y. Kuang, Diam. Relat. Mater. 2006, 15, 1478. 9 S. L. Chou, J. Z. Wang, S. Y. Chew, H. K. Liu, S. X. Dou, Electrochem. Commun. 2008, 10, 1724. ...doi:10.1039/c000517g pmid:20411189 fatcat:4ztbq6nrmbflbgtepa3npqklye
Multi-object tracking (MOT), especially by using a moving monocular camera, is a very challenging task in the field of visual object tracking. To tackle this problem, the traditional tracking-by-detection-based method is heavily dependent on detection results. Occlusion and mis-detections will often lead to tracklets or drifting. In this paper, the tasks of MOT and camera motion estimation are formulated as finding a maximum a posteriori (MAP) solution of joint probability and synchronouslydoi:10.3390/s18072363 pmid:30037032 pmcid:PMC6069259 fatcat:mm4texrgfnh2jni36ywouslu6e
more »... ed in a unified framework. To improve performance, we incorporate the three-dimensional (3D) relative-motion model into a sequential Bayesian framework to track multiple objects and the camera's ego-motion estimation. A 3D relative-motion model that describes spatial relations among objects is exploited for predicting object states robustly and recovering objects when occlusion and mis-detections occur. Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) particle filtering is applied to solve the posteriori estimation problem. Both quantitative and qualitative experiments with benchmark datasets and video collected on campus were conducted, which confirms that the proposed method is outperformed in many evaluation metrics.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have well-defined hollow interiors and exhibit unusual mechanical and thermal stability as well as electron conductivity 1 . This opens intriguing possibilities to introduce other matter into the cavities 2-5 , which may lead to nanocomposite materials with interesting properties or behaviour different from the bulk 6-8 . Here, we report a striking enhancement of the catalytic activity of Rh particles confined inside nanotubes for the conversion of CO and H 2 to ethanol.doi:10.1038/nmat1916 pmid:17515914 fatcat:q64ozr4kybfhxm5veevr6bawsi
more »... The overall formation rate of ethanol (30.0 mol mol −1 Rh h −1 ) inside the nanotubes exceeds that on the outside of the nanotubes by more than an order of magnitude, although the latter is much more accessible. Such an effect with synergetic confinement has not been observed before in catalysis involving CNTs. We believe that our discovery may be of a quite general nature and could apply to many other processes. It is anticipated that this will motivate theoretical and experimental studies to further the fundamental understanding of the host-guest interaction within carbon and other nanotube systems. With soaring oil prices and dwindling resources, ethanol and other alternative energy sources have moved into the spotlight in recent years as clean, sustainable and transportable fuel alternatives 9 . This has sparked rapid global growth of industries producing ethanol on large scales by fermentation of agricultural carbohydrates such as cane sugar and cornstarch. However, it seems that nature cannot provide both food and fuel for a still growing and increasingly energy-hungry world population in the near future 9,10 . Syngas (a mixture of CO and H 2 ) conversion over Rh-based catalysts to ethanol 11 offers a good alternative because other C2 oxygenate by-products (for example, acetaldehyde and acetic acid) can be readily hydrogenated to ethanol, and syngas can be conveniently manufactured from natural gas and coal at present and from biomass in the future. On the other hand, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely studied as supports for nanoscopic metal catalysts 12-14 , although those were generally deposited on the outer CNT surface. The few experimental examples of catalytic reactions inside CNTs were liquid-phase hydrogenations, which showed moderate improvement of selectivity or activity with respect to conventional catalysts 15, 16 . Recently, it has been shown that the autoreduction of iron oxide nanoparticles within CNT channels in an inert gas atmosphere is significantly facilitated and sensitive to the CNT inner diameter, whereas the oxidation of metal particles is retarded compared with that of particles located on the outer 10 20 30
IntroductionABO blood group antigens within grafts are continuously exposed to anti-A/B antibodies in the serum of recipients after ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation and are instrumental in antibody-mediated rejection. Some individuals secrete soluble blood group antigens into body fluids. In this study, we investigated the effect of donor and recipient secretor status on the outcomes of ABOi kidney transplantation.MethodsData of a total of 32 patients with ABOi living donor kidneydoi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.671185 pmid:34194432 pmcid:PMC8236826 fatcat:xkwazv54onfufadfcpnkac6tl4
more »... transplantation were retrospectively collected between 2014 and 2020 in West China Hospital. The genotype and phenotype of both donors and recipients were examined and evaluated with post-transplantation anti-A/B titer changes, graft function, and rejection.ResultsOf the 32 recipients and 32 donors, 23 (71.9%) recipients and 27 (84.4%) donors had secretor genotypes, whereas 9 (28.1%) recipients and 5 (15.6%) donors did not. Anti-A/B titers after ABOi kidney transplantation were not significantly influenced by the secretor status of either donors or recipients. The post-transplantation serum creatinine (Scr) levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was better in weak- or non-secretor recipients at day 30 (Scr P = 0.047, eGFR P = 0.008), day 90 (Scr P = 0.010, eGFR P = 0.005), and month 9 (eGFR P = 0.008), and recipients from secretor donors had a lower incidence of graft rejection in the first year after ABOi transplantation (P = 0.004).ConclusionsA weak secretor status phenotype was found in both genotypes, i.e., individuals who secreted soluble antigens as well as those who did not. The recipient ABH-secretor status may have an influence on early posttransplant renal function, and the donor ABH-secretor status might affect the incidence of graft rejection.
TEM micrographs of (a) ANC, (b) ATANC, (c) FANC 5 , (d) FANC 10 , (e) FAN FANC15 , and (g) FANC20 specimens. Figure 3 . 3 Figure 3. The Pv values of porous UHMWPE/FANC 12.5 specimens. ...doi:10.3390/ma14206065 pmid:34683670 fatcat:iunvu6vgwzc3lmjmgnl45xqb7y
Determination of genome-wide DNA methylation is significant for both basic research and drug development. As a key epigenetic modification, this biochemical process can modulate gene expression to influence the cell differentiation which can possibly lead to cancer. Due to the involuted biochemical mechanism of DNA methylation, obtaining a precise prediction is a considerably tough challenge. Existing approaches have yielded good predictions, but the methods either need to combine plenty ofdoi:10.1186/s12864-019-5488-5 fatcat:or5yxy6msfevblhrtw2kauqgoq
more »... ures and prerequisites or deal with only hypermethylation and hypomethylation. Results: In this paper, we propose a deep learning method for prediction of the genome-wide DNA methylation, in which the Methylation Regression is implemented by Convolutional Neural Networks (MRCNN). Through minimizing the continuous loss function, experiments show that our model is convergent and more precise than the state-of-art method (DeepCpG) according to results of the evaluation. MRCNN also achieves the discovery of de novo motifs by analysis of features from the training process. Conclusions: Genome-wide DNA methylation could be evaluated based on the corresponding local DNA sequences of target CpG loci. With the autonomous learning pattern of deep learning, MRCNN enables accurate predictions of genome-wide DNA methylation status without predefined features and discovers some de novo methylation-related motifs that match known motifs by extracting sequence patterns.
Nanoporous carbon composite membranes, comprising a layer of porous carbon fiber structures with an average channel width of 30-60 nm grown on a porous ceramic substrate, are found to exhibit robust desalination effect with high freshwater flux. In three different membrane processes of vacuum membrane distillation, reverse osmosis and forward osmosis, the carbon composite membrane showed 100% salt rejection with 3.5 to 20 times higher freshwater flux compared to existing polymeric membranes.arXiv:1604.07567v1 fatcat:cebr4n45wvebrjchgcxto7uyh4
more »... rmal accounting experiments found that at least 80% of the freshwater pass through the carbon composite membrane with no phase change. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a unique salt rejection mechanism. When seawater is interfaced with either vapor or the surface of carbon, one to three interfacial atomic layers contain no salt ions. Below the liquid entry pressure, the salt solution is stopped at the openings to the porous channels and forms a meniscus, while the surface layer of freshwater can feed the surface diffusion flux that is fast-transported on the surfaces of the carbon fibers, driven by the chemical potential gradient. As the surface-transported water does not involve a phase change, hence that component involves no energy expenditure in the form of latent heat.
Based on CFOG, Fan et al. ... Data Availability Statement: Our implementation of the proposed method and the detailed experimental results is available on the website https://github.com/Zhongli-Fan/3MRS, accessed on 17 January 2022 ...doi:10.3390/rs14030478 fatcat:hpati4w775dvhjp4jzsomemmva
Background Currently, research on the quantitative distribution of ABO antigens in different organs and tissues remains limited. We aimed to examine the individual characteristics of blood group glycoprotein A and B antigen expression in human kidneys and livers. Methods We obtained human samples, including the renal artery, renal vein, renal tissue, hepatic artery, hepatic vein, portal vein, and hepatic tissue, from 24 deceased organ transplant donors. The expression of the blood groupdoi:10.1186/s12865-021-00456-2 pmid:34598667 pmcid:PMC8485463 fatcat:3owl5ewgwrecdelwxxjxtsmgl4
more »... glycoprotein A and B was analysed and compared by Western blotting. Results There was no significant difference in the expression between blood group glycoprotein A and B antigens at any of the seven sites (p > 0.05). The expression of both A and B antigens was highest in renal tissue and the portal vein and was lowest in the renal artery. A large difference in glycoprotein antigen expression was observed among various donors or different regions of the same individual. Univariate analysis revealed that glycoprotein A/B antigens were affected by the age and sex of donors and were significantly higher in males and in young people. Conclusions Our study found that blood group glycoprotein antigen expression showed certain trends and distinct distribution in the kidney, liver, and vessels among individuals and in different regions of the same individual, which may explain the different clinical outcomes of patients who received ABO-incompatible transplantation.
Towards matching SAR and optical satellite images, Fan et al. ...doi:10.3390/rs13173535 fatcat:wtyhn6bwkrf2rinozufaqsul4m
DNA methylation is a widely investigated epigenetic mark that plays a vital role in tumorigenesis. Advancements in high-throughput assays, such as the Infinium 450K platform, provide genome-scale DNA methylation landscapes in single-CpG locus resolution, and the identification of differentially methylated loci has become an insightful approach to deepen our understanding of cancers. However, the situation with extremely unbalanced numbers of samples and loci (approximately 1:1,000) makes itdoi:10.3389/fgene.2019.00774 pmid:31543899 pmcid:PMC6739624 fatcat:rd6isbhhk5hglli37yuik7k2m4
more »... er difficult to explore differential methylation between the sick and the normal. In this article, a hybrid approach based on ensemble feature selection for identifying differentially methylated loci (HyDML) was proposed by incorporating instance perturbation and multiple function models. Experiments on data from The Cancer Genome Atlas showed that HyDML not only achieved effective DML identification, but also outperformed the single-feature selection approach in terms of classification performance and the robustness of feature selection. The intensive analysis of the DML indicated that different types of cancers have mutual patterns, and the stable DML sharing in pan-cancers is of the great potential to be biomarkers, which may strengthen the confidence of domain experts to implement biological validations.
doi:10.1117/1.jbo.20.7.076003 pmid:26169790 pmcid:PMC4572094 fatcat:y33kwz7iuffodofy24zoxkm3te
Freshwater flux and energy consumption are two important benchmarks for the membrane desalination process. Here we show nanoporous carbon composite membranes, comprising a layer of porous carbon fiber structures grown on a porous ceramic substrate, can exhibit 100% desalination effect with 3 to 20 times higher freshwater flux compared to existing polymeric membranes. Thermal accounting experiments found the carbon composite membrane to save over 80% of latent heat consumption. Theoreticaldoi:10.1038/s41565-018-0067-5 pmid:29507347 fatcat:ynhynn26dja7vilneusiv4m5jq
more »... ations combined with molecular dynamics simulations revealed the unique microscopic process in the membrane. When the salt solution is stopped at the openings to the nanoscale porous channels and forms a meniscus, the vapor can fast transport across the narrow gap to condense on the permeate side, driven by the chemical potential gradient and aided by the unique smoothness of the carbon surface. The high thermal conductivity of the carbon composite membrane insures that most of the latent heat is recovered.
The effect of donor kidney morphology parameters on the prognosis of renal transplant recipients remains unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study consisting of 290 pairs of donors and recipients who underwent living related renal transplantation in our center between December 2013 and December 2015. The donor kidney morphology parameters, demographic characteristics and renal function of the included participants were collected and analyzed. The univariate linear regression analysisdoi:10.21037/tau-20-680 pmid:33209660 pmcid:PMC7658144 fatcat:hivz433glrg2vpukq3v2xd4sna
more »... vealed that the donor kidney weight (DKW)/recipient body weight (RBW), DKW/recipient body surface area (RBSA), DKW/recipient body mass index (RBMI), donor kidney volume (DKV)/RBW, DKV/RBSA, DKV/RBMI, and donor body weight (DBW)/RBW were significantly correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and serum creatinine in recipients within two years of transplantation. In our multivariate linear regression analysis, DKW/RBW and donor age significantly correlated with eGFR at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after transplantation. DKW/RBW had the best prediction performance for good renal allograft function at 12 months after transplantation. We found that when the age of the donor was 55 years and above, the prediction performance of the nephron dosing to the recipient's metabolic demands mismatch was elevated. After grouping according to the donor's age and DKW/RBW, the allograft function from different donor ages improved as DKW/RBW increased. The number of recipients who were rejected in the high DKW/RBW group was significantly fewer than those in the low and medium groups the 1, 2, and 3-year graft and patient survival rates were comparable among these groups. Furthermore, we also identified that when the age of the donor was 55 years and above, the threshold of DKW/RBW was 3.09 g/kg via the receiver operating characteristic curve, which predicted a good renal function 12 months after transplantation. The donor kidney morphology parameters were significantly associated with early renal allograft function, especially when the age of the donor was 55 years and above.
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