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A linkage map for Betula platyphylla Suk was constructed based on RAPD, ISSR, AFLP and SSR markers by a pseudo-testcross mapping strategy. A F1 segregating population including 80 progenies was obtained from the cross between two superior trees selected from Qinghai and Wangqing provenance, respectively. The paternal map was constructed with 282 markers consisting of 14 major and 15 minor (5 triplets and 10 doublets) linkage groups and spanning 1131 cM at an average distance of 4.0 cM betweendoi:10.1515/sg-2012-0001 fatcat:ovppi5gshrbvdivfvolhavxk6i
more »... jacent markers. The maternal map has 277 markers consisting of 15 major and 8 minor (5 triplets and 3 doublets) groups covering 1288 cM at an average distance of 4.6 cM between adjacent markers. In the same pedigree we investigated association of genetic markers with seedling stem height and circumference. The composite interval mapping was used to detect the number of quantitative trait loci and their position on the genetic linkage maps. Three QTLs (one on the male map and two on the female map) were found explaining 13.4%, 17.5% and 18.8% of the trait variation, respectively.
AbstractIn mammals, female cells are obliged to inactivate one of two X chromosomes to achieve dosage parity with the single X chromosome in male cells, and it is also thought that the single active X chromosome is increased 2-fold to achieve dosage balance with two sets of autosomes (X:A ratio = 1, or Ohno's hypothesis). However, the ontogeny of X-chromosome inactivation and augmentation of the single active X remains unclear during human embryogenesis. Here, we perform single-cell RNA-seqdoi:10.1101/2020.03.08.982694 fatcat:tdrihaf4ybc7hcj6xxcbch3swi
more »... ysis to examine the timing of X:A balancing and X-inactivation (XCI) in pre- and peri-implantation human embryos up to fourteen days in culture. We find that X-chromosome gene expression in both male and female preimplantation embryos is approximately balanced with autosomes (X:A ratio = 1) after embryonic genome activation (EGA) and persists through fourteen days in vitro. Cross-species analysis of preimplantation embryo also show balanced X:A ratio within the first few days of development. By single-cell mRNA SNP profiling, we find XCI beginning in day 6-7 blastocyst embryos, but does not affect X:A dosage balance. XCI is most evident in trophoectoderm (TE) cells, but can also be observed in a small number of inner cell mass (ICM)-derived cells including primitive endoderm (PE) and epiblast (EPI) cells. Analysis between individual XaXa and XaXi sister cells from the same embryo reveals random XCI and persistently balanced X:A ratio, including sister cells transitioning between XaXa and XaXi states. We therefore conclude that the male X-chromosome undergoes X chromosome augmentation prior to the simultaneous X-chromosome inactivation and augmentation in females. Together, our data demonstrate an evolutionally conserved model of X chromosome dosage compensation in humans and other mammalian species.
This paper investigates the Discrete Targets Search Problem, (DTSP), which aims to quickly search for discrete objects scattered in a vast symmetry region. Different from continuous function extremal value search, the discrete points search cannot make use of the properties of regular functions, such as function analytic, single/multiple extreme, and monotonicity. Thus, in this paper a new search scheme based on Lévy random distribution is investigated. In comparison with the TraditionalCarpetdoi:10.3390/sym14020272 fatcat:vz5rug3sg5cwjgdqcqtcez7tom
more »... earch or Random search based on other distributions, DTSP can provide much faster search speed which is demonstrated by simulation with different scales problems for the selected scenarios. The simulations experiment proves that DTSP is faster for searching for a discrete single target or multiple targets in a wide area. It provides a new method for solving the discrete target search problem.
Many people use traditional methods such as quasi-Newton method and Gauss–Newton-based BFGS to solve nonlinear equations. In this paper, we present an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve nonlinear equations. The novel algorithm introduces the historical and local optimum information of particles to update a particle's velocity. Five sets of typical nonlinear equations are employed to test the quality and reliability of the novel algorithm search comparing with the PSOdoi:10.1155/2020/6284583 fatcat:wp26euq2gbhl3kxswouef2k53u
more »... hm. Numerical results show that the proposed method is effective for the given test problems. The new algorithm can be used as a new tool to solve nonlinear equations, continuous function optimization, etc., and the combinatorial optimization problem. The global convergence of the given method is established.
Lian, Yang, and Wu developed the Chinese version of the Academic Burnout Scale (ABS)  based on the work by Schaufeli et al.  . ...doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087152 pmid:24489857 pmcid:PMC3906107 fatcat:yne66exuyzhpxavx5ocetrsroi
Animal, epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated the anti-tumor activity of pharmacological proteasome inhibitors and the cancer-preventive effects of green tea consumption. Previously, one of our laboratories reported that natural ester bond-doi:10.1007/bf03402019 fatcat:vk7it4b2rnhg7f5z6y2m5mesre
As shown in Fig. 5 , the complicated Conference'17, July 2017, Washington, DC, USA Yijiang Lian 1 , Zhijie Chen 2 ,Xin Pei 1 , Shuang Li 1 , Yifei Wang 3 , Yuefeng Qiu 1 , Zhiheng Zhang 1 , Zhipeng Tao ... 1 , Zhijie Chen 2 ,Xin Pei 1 , Shuang Li 1 , Yifei Wang 3 , Yuefeng Qiu 1 , Zhiheng Zhang 1 , Zhipeng Tao 1 , Liang Yuan 1 , Hanju Guan 2 , Kefeng Zhang 2 , Zhigang Li 1 , Xiaochun Liu 1 Table 1 : 1 ...arXiv:2008.02014v1 fatcat:k6jy4tsxczg6nicst6j5nduosa
Due to the limitation of geological conditions and route alignment, tunnel engineering will inevitably pass through special sections such as shallow buried section, broken rock layer, and loss and weak rock stratum. Tunnel construction in these special sections will easily lead to tunnel collapse, landslide of portal slope, excessive deformation of supporting structure, and even deformation and damage accidents, which are high-incidence areas of engineering safety accidents. In this paper, a 3Ddoi:10.1155/2021/1316338 fatcat:er3ng35qdjcdnbttvgqzqo6ys4
more »... numerical model is established based on a practical engineering to analyze the deformation and stress variation of surrounding rock of the tunnel with the in-advance support technology. According to the monitoring results of the actual project, the deformation law of the soft rock section at the tunnel entrance is mastered. The deformation of surrounding rock of the tunnel under the support condition of changing the three main parameters, such as ring spacing, pipe diameter, and pipe length, is analyzed, and the effect of controlling the deformation of surrounding rock with different parameters is studied. The deformation, stress characteristics, and plastic zone distribution of surrounding rock by a single side wall guide method and ring excavation and retaining core soil method in advance support are numerically simulated and studied.
doi:10.1038/cmi.2009.104 pmid:20029462 pmcid:PMC4003255 fatcat:fukhz6mij5bgfpeius3dzemh64
Particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA) is an advantage optimization tool. However, it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution especially for middle and large size problems and it is difficult to improve solution accuracy by fine-tuning parameters. According to the insufficiency, this paper researches the local and global search combine particle swarm algorithm (LGSCPSOA), and its convergence and obtains its convergence qualification. At the same time, it is tested with adoi:10.1155/2014/905712 fatcat:5ogvljqlqzel3ihayhvgfepxsu
more »... of 8 benchmark continuous functions and compared their optimization results with original particle swarm algorithm (OPSOA). Experimental results indicate that the LGSCPSOA improves the search performance especially on the middle and large size benchmark functions significantly.
Data extraction Two authors (Zhigang Chen and Jiye Zhu) independently extracted data conforming to the inclusion and exclusion criteria from the eligible articles. ... Search and literature retrieval were completed independently by two of the authors (Zhigang Chen and Jiye Zhu). Disagreements of the search result were settled by discussion among all the authors. ...doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118251 pmid:25730260 pmcid:PMC4346398 fatcat:xhgo7fh3wzf7xfx4hakmvilcge
Writing -original draft: Zhigang Zhong. Writing -review & editing: Lian Yang. wwwcatcprcorgcn/indexaspx?menuid=4&type=articleinfo&lanmuid=101&infoid=9866&language=cn. (accessed 31 Jun 2019) 50. ...doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0233749 pmid:32469973 fatcat:2rqeqvgorbe65e5w5qk7zniezu
Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) of cobalt ferrite have been synthesized via a homogeneous precipitation route using hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) as the precipitant. The particle size, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the synthesized particles were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The NPs are of cubic inverse spinel structure and nearly spherical shape. With the increase of oxidation time from 30 to 180 minutes indoi:10.1155/2008/921654 fatcat:azcurtyqkrafhlrex2hucncyte
more »... e reaction solution at90∘C, the average particle size increases from ~30 nm to ~45 nm. The as-synthesized NPs ~30 nm in size show higherMs(61.5 emu/g) and moderate Hc (945 Oe) andMr/Ms(0.45) value compared with the materials synthesized by coprecipitation method using NaOH as precipitate at high pH value.
Lian et al. in 24 presented a similar particle swarm optimization algorithm, and through simulation experiment showed that it was effective to solve optimization problems especially with large size. ...doi:10.1155/2010/838596 fatcat:ryvtyqbejjfepezd55vtgyfv7y
Phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor (PGI/AMF) is secreted by tumors and influences tumor growth and metastasis. In order to investigate the effects of silencing PGI/AMF on the migration and the sphere forming abilities of human glioblastoma U87 cells, as well as on the side population cells (SPCs), PGI/AMF was silenced using siRNA. Western blot analysis and RT-qPCR were used to assess the expression of PGI/AMF, Akt and SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2). Wound healing,doi:10.3892/ijmm.2016.2500 pmid:26936801 pmcid:PMC4790702 fatcat:qfq5xhbowvawflgthjzdr4c2zm
more »... gration and tumorsphere formation assays were performed to assess invasion and metastatic potential. The proportion of SPCs was determined using Hoechst 33342 dye and flow cytometric analysis. PGI/AMF silencing inhibited the wound healing capacity and migration ability of U87 cells by 52.6 and 80.4%, respectively, compared with the scrambled siRNA (both P<0.001). Silencing of PGI/AMF decreased the proportion of SPCs in the U87 cells by 80.9% (P<0.01). The silencing of PGI/AMF decreased the number and size of tumorspheres by 53.1 and 39.9%, respectively, compared with the scrambled siRNA (both P<0.01). The silencing of PGI/AMF decreased the levels of phosphorylated Akt (-71.9%, P<0.001) compared with the scrambled siRNA, as well as the levels of the stemness marker, SOX2 (-61.7%, P<0.01). Taken together, these findings suggest that PGI/AMF silencing decreases migration, tumorsphere formation as well as the proportion of SPCs in glioblastoma U87 cells. We suggest that the Akt pathway is involved, and our results provide a potential new target for the treatment of glioblastoma.
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