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Complementary analysis techniques are applied in this work to study the interface structure of Mo/Si multilayers. The samples are characterized by grazing incident x-ray reflectivity, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and extreme ultraviolet reflectivity. The results indicate that the layer thickness is controlled well with small diffusion on the interface by forming MoSi 2 . Considering MoSi 2 as the interface composition, simulating the resultdoi:10.3788/col201614.083401 fatcat:wqpnbu54enadbcnwbo3u3xhwbq
more »... of our four-layer model fits well with the measured reflectivity curve at 13.5 nm.
Photothermal cancer therapy is an alternative to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. With the development of nanophotothermal agents, this therapy holds immense potential in clinical translation. However, the toxicity issues derived from the fact that nanomaterials are trapped and retained in the reticuloendothelial systems limit their biomedical application. Developing biodegradable photothermal agents is the most practical route to address these concerns. In addition to thedoi:10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2016.0052 pmid:27807498 pmcid:PMC5069834 fatcat:a2qtphm4vrcmjkhqmoun3c77gu
more »... l properties of nanomaterials, various internal and external stimuli play key roles on nanomaterials uptake, transport, and clearance. In this review, we summarized novel nanoplatforms for photothermal therapy; these nanoplatforms can elicit stimuli-triggered degradation. We focused on the recent innovative designs endowed with biodegradable photothermal agents under different stimuli, including enzyme, pH, and near-infrared (NIR) laser.
Caroli's disease (CD) is a rare congenital disorder. The early diagnosis of the disease and differentiation of types I and II are of extreme importance to patient survival. This study was designed to review and discuss observations in 30 patients with CD and to clarify the clinical characteristics of the disease. The demographic and clinical features, laboratory indicators, imaging findings and pathology results for 30 patients with CD were reviewed retrospectively. Caroli's disease can occurdoi:10.1111/hpb.12330 pmid:25327281 pmcid:PMC4333791 fatcat:n5ldulc3hbhxxea55v4y7cfa5u
more »... any age. The average age of onset in the study cohort was 24 years. Patients who presented with symptoms before the age of 40 years were more likely to develop type II CD. Approximately one-third of patients presented without positive signs at original diagnosis and most of these patients were found to have type I CD on pathology. Anaemia, leucopoenia and thrombocytopoenia were more frequent in patients with type II than type I CD. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and computed tomography (CT) examinations were most useful in diagnosing CD. No typical symptoms, signs or laboratory indicators are able to distinguish CD from other conditions. Both MRCP and CT were most valuable in diagnosis. The two types of CD may be differentiated by age of onset and routine blood tests.
Based on lithium-ion tracer experiments, Capela et al. obtained information about mixing degree and non-effective volume in a full-scale anaerobic contact reactor 27 , while Wang et al. found that dosing ... 0.04 53.6 4.8 15.60 16.25 17.73 4.7 8.34 0.38 21.4 4 0.43 60.9 7.5 0.19 87.9 3.8 29.70 31.53 Scientific RepoRts | 5:10387 | DOi: 10.1038/srep10387 How to cite this article: Wang ...doi:10.1038/srep10387 pmid:25997399 pmcid:PMC4441134 fatcat:7rtzh2owmrez7hvrtkk5i6eipq
The unwanted zero-order diffraction is still an issue in beam shaping using pixelated spatial light modulators. In this paper, we report a new approach for zero-order free beam shaping by designing an asymmetric triangle reflector and introducing a digital blazed grating and a digital lens to the phase hologram addressed onto the spatial light modulator. By adding the digital lens phase to the previously reported complex-amplitude coding algorithms, we realized the generation of complex beamsarXiv:2110.08772v1 fatcat:w5nizv4f7bgn5cuujf5jjm7mvu
more »... thout the burden of zero-order diffraction. We comparatively investigated the produced complex light fields using the modified complex-amplitude coding algorithms to validate the proposed method.
A pneumonia outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019 and then spread rapidly to the whole country. A total of 81,021 laboratory-confirmed cases, including 3,194 deaths (3.9%) had been reported in China by March 14, 2020, meanwhile, 61,518 laboratory-confirmed cases and 2,199 deaths were reported outside China. Common symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia included fever, fatigue and dry cough. Faced with such a sudden outbreak of new infectiousdoi:10.1101/2020.03.24.20027730 fatcat:inv2cqckjrdnrfb4ocoal5nfru
more »... es, we have no history to learn from and no evidence to count on. Traditional models often predict inconsistent results. Aiming at estimate the epidemic trend timely after the outbreak, we mainly used 7-day moving average of log-transformed daily new cases (LMA) to establish a new index named "epidemic trend index", which will be used to predict the evolutionary trend of the epidemic situation and support epidemic control decision making processes. We used SARS epidemic data from Hong Kong in 2003 to verify the practicability of the new index, which shows that the index is acceptable. The epidemic trend index was then applied to the COVID-19 epidemic analysis in China. The results show that during the epidemic, the trend direction of different districts of China changed on different date. In the whole country and in Hubei Province alone, the epidemic reached the peak on February 9. While the peak appeared earlier, i.e. on February 5 in other provinces. It indicated that decisive outbreak control measures of the Chinese government are effective. While local governments should adjust management measures based on local risk level of epidemic. Although the epidemic has eased since late February, continued efforts in epidemic control are still needed to accelerate the end of the epidemic in China. However, the global COVID-19 epidemic outside China continues to expand as indicated by the epidemic trend index we proposed. In order to cope with the novel coronavirus pandemic, people all over the world should work together and governments of all countries should take efficient measures in the light of China's experience and according to national circumstances and local conditions.
High-spin level structure of the neutron-rich nucleus 91Y has been reinvestigated via the 82Se(13C, p3n)91Y reaction. A newly constructed level scheme including several key levels clarifies the uncertainties in the earlier studies. These levels are characterized by the breaking of the Z=38 and N=56 subshell closures, which involves in the spin-isospin dependent central force and tensor force.arXiv:1501.03596v1 fatcat:ic6s2jkbibe2tixiphnrhqjfsa
The lung cancer incidence in the Xuanwei and neighboring region, Yunnan, China, is among the highest in China and is attributed to severe air pollution with high benzo(a)pyrene levels. We systematically and comparatively analyzed DNA methylation alterations at genome and gene levels in Xuanwei lung cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as benzo(a)pyrene-treated cells and mouse samples. We obtained a comprehensive dataset of genome-wide cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylation in airdoi:10.18632/oncotarget.13622 pmid:27901495 pmcid:PMC5352062 fatcat:npbar6bzd5hzvmepeebzs47nsu
more »... ion-related lung cancer samples. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure induced multiple alterations in DNA methylation and in mRNA expressions of DNA methyltransferases and ten-11 translocation proteins; these alterations partially occurred in Xuanwei lung cancer. Furthermore, benzo(a)pyrene-induced DKK2 and EN1 promoter hypermethylation and LPAR2 promoter hypomethylation led to downregulation and up-regulation of the genes, respectively; the down-regulation of DKK2 and EN1 promoted the cellular proliferation. Thus, DNA methylation alterations induced by benzo(a)pyrene contribute partially to abnormal DNA methylation in air pollution-related lung cancer, and these DNA methylation alterations may affect the development and progression of lung cancer. Additionally, vitamin C and B6 can reduce benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA methylation alterations and may be used as chemopreventive agents for air pollution-related lung cancer.
Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is a transmembrane protein that consists of a cytoplasmic domain and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal domain. As unfolded protein levels arise in the ER, the ER cytoplasmic domain of ATF6 moves to the nucleus, where it activates the transcription of a range of genes, including those involved in apoptosis. As ATF6 only becomes functional once it has moved to the nucleus, compounds that inhibit its re-localization are of therapeutic interest. The aimdoi:10.3892/ijmm.2015.2442 pmid:26707144 fatcat:ycxyiamwzbei3ga2s34vczbbny
more »... f the present study was to rapidly and accurately identify such compounds using a novel image-based, high-content screening (HCS) technique. The results from the HCS analysis were then confirmed by luciferase reporter assays, western blot analysis and the measurement of cell viability. We found that HCS identified compounds which inhibited ATF6 nuclear translocation with high specificity, as confirmed by the luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis. Moreover, we demonstrated that 3 of the 80 identified compounds impaired ATF6-mediated induced cell death. The data from this study support the theory that HCS is a novel, high throughput method which can be used for accurate and rapid compound screening.
In 2013, Wang et al developed a van der Waals pick-up method to assemble layered materials  . ... Wang  and Yu  et al provide two kinds of possible routes by lowering the temperature and chemical doping. ...doi:10.1088/0957-4484/26/29/292001 pmid:26134271 fatcat:gbsbvjlh7bg7zitu52p4te62lq
Unidirectionally propagating waves (UPW) such as topologically protected edge modes and surface magnetoplasmons (SMPs) has been a research hotspot in the last decades. In the study of UPW, metals are usually treated as perfect electric conductors (PECs) which, in general, are the boundary conditions. However, it was reported that the transverse resonance condition induced by the PEC wall(s) may significantly narrow up the complete one-way propagation (COWP) band. In this paper, we propose twoarXiv:2110.13441v1 fatcat:zm56mpscgngmxnrill6nkrv4p4
more »... ys to achieve ultra-broadband one-way waveguide in terahertz regime. The first way is utilizing the epsilon negative (ENG) metamaterial (MM) and the other one is replacing the PEC boundary with perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) boundary. In both conditions, the total bandwidth of the COWP bands can be efficiently broadened by more than three times. Moreover, based on the ultra-broadband one-way configurations, gradient-index metamaterial-based one-way waveguides are proposed to achieve broadband truly rainbow trapping (TRT). By utilizing the finite element method, the realization of the broadband TRT without backward reflection is verified in gradient-index structures. Besides, giant electric field enhancement is observed in a PMC-based one-way structure with an ultra-subwavelength (≈ 10^-4λ_0, λ_0 is the wavelength in vaccum) terminal, and the amplitude of the electric field is enormously enhanced by five orders of magnitude. Our findings are beneficial for researches on broadband terahertz communication, energy harvesting and strong-field devices.
In this paper, we propose a new unsupervised feature learning framework, namely Deep Sparse Coding (DeepSC), that extends sparse coding to a multi-layer architecture for visual object recognition tasks. The main innovation of the framework is that it connects the sparse-encoders from different layers by a sparse-to-dense module. The sparse-to-dense module is a composition of a local spatial pooling step and a low-dimensional embedding process, which takes advantage of the spatial smoothnessarXiv:1312.5783v1 fatcat:gv4ptwdh4fccdezwq42quuk5h4
more »... rmation in the image. As a result, the new method is able to learn several levels of sparse representation of the image which capture features at a variety of abstraction levels and simultaneously preserve the spatial smoothness between the neighboring image patches. Combining the feature representations from multiple layers, DeepSC achieves the state-of-the-art performance on multiple object recognition tasks.
Learning-based Multi-View Stereo (MVS) methods warp source images into the reference camera frustum to form 3D volumes, which are fused as a cost volume to be regularized by subsequent networks. The fusing step plays a vital role in bridging 2D semantics and 3D spatial associations. However, previous methods utilize extra networks to learn 2D information as fusing cues, underusing 3D spatial correlations and bringing additional computation costs. Therefore, we present MVSTER, which leveragesarXiv:2204.07346v1 fatcat:e6lenycj3fas3ow4rd47v5px2q
more »... proposed epipolar Transformer to learn both 2D semantics and 3D spatial associations efficiently. Specifically, the epipolar Transformer utilizes a detachable monocular depth estimator to enhance 2D semantics and uses cross-attention to construct data-dependent 3D associations along epipolar line. Additionally, MVSTER is built in a cascade structure, where entropy-regularized optimal transport is leveraged to propagate finer depth estimations in each stage. Extensive experiments show MVSTER achieves state-of-the-art reconstruction performance with significantly higher efficiency: Compared with MVSNet and CasMVSNet, our MVSTER achieves 34% and 14% relative improvements on the DTU benchmark, with 80% and 51% relative reductions in running time. MVSTER also ranks first on Tanks&Temples-Advanced among all published works. Code is released at https://github.com/JeffWang987.
NSFC 81372120, 81572226 to Bai-Cheng He). ... He (Medical Center of university of Chicago, Chicago IL, uSA) for his kind provision of the recombinant adenoviruses. ...doi:10.3892/or.2017.5662 pmid:28534975 fatcat:mpsgx4bowfh53ahyu4csee44k4
Anti-adhesion membranes are prospective scaffolds for preventing peritendinous adhesion after injury. However, currently available scaffolds have some limitations, such as low efficacy for anti-adhesion, low quality of tendon healing, and unknown drug interactions. Thus, in this study, we designed an innovative structure involving an integrated dual-layer poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) electrospun membrane for preventing peritendonous adhesion by promoting tendon gliding. We investigated thedoi:10.3389/fbioe.2020.00387 pmid:32478044 pmcid:PMC7232555 fatcat:uw6wuh6ynjd4dd7einh5l7h5vu
more »... morphology and wettability of the fiber scaffold. The adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts were low on the PLLA fibrous membrane. Compared with single-layer membranes, the dual-layer PLLA fiber scaffold reduced adhesion to the tissues. The gliding space persisted until recovery in chicken extensor flexor tendons in vivo. Thus, this innovative PLLA membrane scaffold could prevent adhesion and promote gliding to facilitate tendon healing.
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