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Processing of Anomalous Sentences in Japanese : An fMRI Study

Yuko Sassa, Motoaki Sugiura, Yoshihiko Matsue, Yuko Akitsuki, Yasuhiro Maeda, Ryuta Kawashima, Jobu Watanabe
2007 Journal of Cognitive Science  
Most previous neuroimaging studies of anomalous sentence processing have used Indo-European languages to separately identify syntactic and semantic processing mechanisms. However, typologically distant languages such as Japanese use different sources of information in grammatical role assignments. Thus, we expected that the activation pattiεm during processing of anomalous sentences in Japanese would be at least p따tially different from that in other languages reported in previous studies. We
more » ... d functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activation during judgments of the correctness of normal and anomalous sentences in native Japanese speakers. We presented simple Japanese sentences as auditory stimuli. Significant activation was found in the left middle and inferior frontal regions (pars orbitaris and pars triangularis) and the superior p뼈etal lobule during processing of sentences with semantic violations. On the other hand, no preferential activation was found, except for the left anterior part of the superior temporal gyrus, during the processing of sentences with syntactic violations. Additionally, activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been reported in previous studies using Indo-European languages, was not found in our study. The results support our assumption that the left inferior frontal gyms plays a minor role in syntactic processing of simple Japanese sentences.
doi:10.17791/jcs.2007.8.2.153 fatcat:ictikvgm6bhcpdjkyzajhayleu

Anatomical Segregation of Representations of Personally Familiar and Famous People in the Temporal and Parietal Cortices

Motoaki Sugiura, Yuko Sassa, Jobu Watanabe, Yuko Akitsuki, Yasuhiro Maeda, Yoshihiko Matsue, Ryuta Kawashima
2009 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience  
Acknowledgments We thank Yuko Satoh for operating the MRI scanner, Atsushi Harada and Kazunori Satoh for support in data analysis, and Wataru Suzuki, Ai Fukushima, Keisuke Wakusawa, and Atsushi Sekiguchi  ...  Sassa, Y., Sugiura, M., Jeong, H., Horie, K., Sato, S., & Kawashima, R. (2007). Cortical mechanism of communicative speech production. Neuroimage, 37. 985-992. Saxe, R. (2006).  ... 
doi:10.1162/jocn.2008.21150 pmid:18855557 fatcat:uqq4iybvqnaqxks7fvxn6v4geu

Effects of Fast Simple Numerical Calculation Training on Neural Systems

Hikaru Takeuchi, Tomomi Nagase, Yasuyuki Taki, Yuko Sassa, Hiroshi Hashizume, Rui Nouchi, Ryuta Kawashima
2016 Neural Plasticity  
Authors' Contribution Hikaru Takeuchi, Tomomi Nagase, Yasuyuki Taki, Yuko Sassa, Hiroshi Hashizume, and Rui Nouchi performed the experiment. All authors discussed the findings.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2016/5940634 pmid:26881117 pmcid:PMC4736604 fatcat:h5esbpctoralrkzv4iecl5r6su

White matter structures associated with creativity: Evidence from diffusion tensor imaging

Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Yuko Sassa, Hiroshi Hashizume, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Ai Fukushima, Ryuta Kawashima
2010 NeuroImage  
Creativity has been essential to the development of human civilization and plays a crucial role in cultural life. However, despite literature that has proposed the importance of structural connectivity in the brain for creativity, the relationship between regional white matter integrity and creativity has never been directly investigated. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging and a behavioral creativity test of divergent thinking to investigate the relationship between creativity and
more » ... tructural connectivity. We examined associations between creativity and fractional anisotropy across the brain in healthy young adult (mean age, 21.7 years old; [SD] = 1.44) men (n = 42) and women (n = 13). After controlling for age, sex, and score on Raven's advanced progressive matrices, a test for psychometric measures of intelligence, significant positive relationships between fractional anisotropy and individual creativity as measured by the divergent thinking test were observed in the white matter in or adjacent to the bilateral prefrontal cortices, the body of the corpus callosum, the bilateral basal ganglia, the bilateral temporo-parietal junction and the right inferior parietal lobule. As a whole, these findings indicate that integrated white matter tracts underlie creativity. These pathways involve the association cortices and the corpus callosum, which connect information in distant brain regions and underlie diverse cognitive functions that support creativity. Thus, our results are congruent with the ideas that creativity is associated with the integration of conceptually distant ideas held in different brain domains and architectures and that creativity is supported by diverse high-level cognitive functions, particularly those of the frontal lobe.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.02.035 pmid:20171286 fatcat:4e6bvxejabbazefyos73ps6ur4

Cerebral Blood Flow during Rest Associates with General Intelligence and Creativity

Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Hiroshi Hashizume, Yuko Sassa, Tomomi Nagase, Rui Nouchi, Ryuta Kawashima, Björn Brembs
2011 PLoS ONE  
Recently, much scientific attention has been focused on resting brain activity and its investigation through such methods as the analysis of functional connectivity during rest (the temporal correlation of brain activities in different regions). However, investigation of the magnitude of brain activity during rest has focused on the relative decrease of brain activity during a task, rather than on the absolute resting brain activity. It is thus necessary to investigate the association between
more » ... gnitive factors and measures of absolute resting brain activity, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), during rest (rest-CBF). In this study, we examined this association using multiple regression analyses. Rest-CBF was the dependent variable and the independent variables included two essential components of cognitive functions, psychometric general intelligence and creativity. CBF was measured using arterial spin labeling and there were three analyses for rest-CBF; namely mean gray matter rest-CBF, mean white matter rest-CBF, and regional rest-CBF. The results showed that mean gray and white matter rest-CBF were significantly and positively correlated with individual psychometric intelligence. Furthermore, mean white matter rest-CBF was significantly and positively correlated with creativity. After correcting the effect of mean gray matter rest-CBF the significant and positive correlation between regional rest-CBF in the perisylvian anatomical cluster that includes the left superior temporal gyrus and insula and individual psychometric intelligence was found. Also, regional rest-CBF in the precuneus was significantly and negatively correlated with individual creativity. Significance of these results of regional rest-CBF did not change when the effect of regional gray matter density was corrected. The findings showed mean and regional rest-CBF in healthy young subjects to be correlated with cognitive functions. The findings also suggest that, even in young cognitively intact subjects, resting brain activity (possibly underlain by default cognitive activity or metabolic demand from developed brain structures) is associated with cognitive functions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025532 pmid:21980485 pmcid:PMC3183028 fatcat:yyizd2d665fkjh3qkjnhwoqrhq

Neural correlates of deception in social contexts in normally developing children

Susumu Yokota, Yasuyuki Taki, Hiroshi Hashizume, Yuko Sassa, Benjamin Thyreau, Mari Tanaka, Ryuta Kawashima
2013 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
Deception is related to the ability to inhibit prepotent responses and to engage in mental tasks such as anticipating responses and inferring what another person knows, especially in social contexts. However, the neural correlates of deception processing, which requires mentalizing, remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of deception, including mentalization, in social contexts in normally developing children. Healthy right-handed
more » ... ildren (aged 8-9 years) were scanned while performing interactive games involving deception. The games varied along two dimensions: the type of reply (deception and truth) and the type of context (social and less social). Participants were instructed to deceive a witch and to tell the truth to a girl. Under the social-context conditions, participants were asked to consider what they inferred about protagonists' preferences from their facial expressions when responding to questions. Under the less-social-context conditions, participants did not need to consider others' preferences. We found a significantly greater response in the right precuneus under the social-context than under less-social-context conditions. Additionally, we found marginally greater activation in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) under the deception than under the truth condition. These results suggest that deception in a social context requires not only inhibition of prepotent responses but also engagement in mentalizing processes. This study provides the first evidence of the neural correlates of the mentalizing processes involved in deception in normally developing children.
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00206 pmid:23730281 pmcid:PMC3656341 fatcat:tyguvomjjvdffilatsslsjdwia

White matter structures associated with empathizing and systemizing in young adults

Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Benjamin Thyreau, Yuko Sassa, Hiroshi Hashizume, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Tomomi Nagase, Rui Nouchi, Ai Fukushima, Ryuta Kawashima
2013 NeuroImage  
., 2009; Sassa et al., 2012; Takeuchi et al., submitted for publication) .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.04.004 pmid:23578577 fatcat:mpmoqhntdfhwvan4gi76oqfmfy

Regional Gray Matter Volume Is Associated with Empathizing and Systemizing in Young Adults

Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Yuko Sassa, Hiroshi Hashizume, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Ai Fukushima, Ryuta Kawashima, Bogdan Draganski
2014 PLoS ONE  
the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus, right angular gyrus, left superior parietal lobule, and precuneus Previous results related to systemizing (and D score) Sassa  ...  correlation in the right IFG and mPFC Mutschler et al. [43] E-S scale [130] 101 healthy females (mean age: 23.6 years, range: 13-35 years) rGMD Positive correlation in the left anterior insula Sassa  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084782 pmid:24409308 pmcid:PMC3883687 fatcat:jkroibf6hvdklkhcsbxibfv7qa

Childhood socioeconomic status is associated with psychometric intelligence and microstructural brain development

Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Kohei Asano, Michiko Asano, Yuko Sassa, Susumu Yokota, Yuka Kotozaki, Rui Nouchi, Ryuta Kawashima
2021 Communications Biology  
AbstractChildhood socioeconomic status is robustly associated with various children's cognitive factors and neural mechanisms. Here we show the association of childhood socioeconomic status with psychometric intelligence and mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy using diffusion tensor imaging at the baseline experiment (N = 285) and longitudinal changes in these metrics after 3.0 ± 0.3 years (N = 223) in a large sample of normal Japanese children (mean age = 11.2 ± 3.1 years). After
more » ... ing for confounding factors, cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses show that higher childhood socioeconomic status is associated with greater baseline and baseline to follow-up increase of psychometric intelligence and mean diffusivity in areas around the bilateral fusiform gyrus. These results demonstrate that higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher psychometric intelligence measures and altered microstructural properties in the fusiform gyrus which plays a key role in reading and letter recognition and further augmentation of such tendencies during development. Definitive conclusions regarding the causality of these relationships requires intervention and physiological studies. However, the current findings should be considered when developing and revising policies regarding education.
doi:10.1038/s42003-021-01974-w pmid:33927305 fatcat:u7rcct2vmbgixkm7u3gdrf3qh4

Working memory training improves emotional states of healthy individuals

Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Hiroshi Hashizume, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Yuko Sassa, Ryuta Kawashima
2014 Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience  
Working memory (WM) capacity is associated with various emotional aspects, including states of depression and stress, reactions to emotional stimuli, and regulatory behaviors. We have previously investigated the effects of WM training (WMT) on cognitive functions and brain structures. However, the effects of WMT on emotional states and related neural mechanisms among healthy young adults remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated these effects in young adults who underwent WMT or
more » ... ived no intervention for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention, subjects completed self-report questionnaires related to their emotional states and underwent scanning sessions in which brain activities related to negative emotions were measured. Compared with controls, subjects who underwent WMT showed reduced anger, fatigue, and depression. Furthermore, WMT reduced activity in the left posterior insula during tasks evoking negative emotion, which was related to anger. It also reduced activity in the left frontoparietal area. These findings show that WMT can reduce negative mood and provide new insight into the clinical applications of WMT, at least among subjects with preclinical-level conditions.
doi:10.3389/fnsys.2014.00200 pmid:25360090 pmcid:PMC4199268 fatcat:ks7ov3eskbgttllryphw7ald4e

Association between resting-state functional connectivity and empathizing/systemizing

Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Hiroshi Hashizume, Yuko Sassa, Yuka Kotozaki, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Kunio Iizuka, Seishu Nakagawa, Tomomi Nagase (+2 others)
2014 NeuroImage  
On the other hand, systemizing was associated with (a) regional gray matter volume of the posterior parietal cortex in children (Sassa et al., 2012) and regional gray matter volume of the right LPFC  ...  Although a number of neuroimaging studies have investigated the functional activities and brain structures related to empathizing/systemizing (Billington et al., 2008; Chakrabarti et al., 2006; Sassa  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.031 pmid:24844739 fatcat:yl6v7xuecfe7bllvnvygkbepm4

Impact of reading habit on white matter structure: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses

Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Hiroshi Hashizume, Kohei Asano, Michiko Asano, Yuko Sassa, Susumu Yokota, Yuka Kotozaki, Rui Nouchi, Ryuta Kawashima
2016 NeuroImage  
Psychological studies showed the quantity of reading habit affects the development of their reading skills, various language skills, and knowledge. However, despite a vast amount of literature, the effects of reading habit on the development of white matter (WM) structures critical to language and reading processes have never been investigated. In this study, we used the fractional anisotropy ( FA) measure of diffusion tensor imaging to measure WM microstructural properties and examined
more » ... ctional and longitudinal correlations between reading habit and FA of the WM bundles in a large sample of normal children. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, we found that greater strength of reading habit positively affected FA in the left arcuate fasciculus (AF), in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), and in the left posterior corona radiata (PCR). Consistent with previous studies, we also confirmed the significance or a tendency for positive correlation between the strength of reading habit and the Verbal Comprehension score in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These cross-sectional and longitudinal findings indicate that a healthy reading habit may be directly or indirectly associated with the advanced development of WM critical to reading and language processes. Future intervention studies are needed to determine the causal effects of reading habits on WM in normal children.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.03.037 pmid:27033689 fatcat:ii4nvsnhxrbtfmrseilz2qyx7e

Neural correlates of adaptive social responses to real-life frustrating situations: a functional MRI study

Atsushi Sekiguchi, Motoaki Sugiura, Satoru Yokoyama, Yuko Sassa, Kaoru Horie, Shigeru Sato, Ryuta Kawashima
2013 BMC Neuroscience  
Frustrating situations are encountered daily, and it is necessary to respond in an adaptive fashion. A psychological definition states that adaptive social behaviors are "self-performing" and "contain a solution." The present study investigated the neural correlates of adaptive social responses to frustrating situations by assessing the dimension of causal attribution. Based on attribution theory, internal causality refers to one's aptitudes that cause natural responses in real-life situations,
more » ... whereas external causality refers to environmental factors, such as experimental conditions, causing such responses. To investigate the issue, we developed a novel approach that assesses causal attribution under experimental conditions. During fMRI scanning, subjects were required to engage in virtual frustrating situations and play the role of protagonists by verbalizing social responses, which were socially adaptive or non-adaptive. After fMRI scanning, the subjects reported their causal attribution index of the psychological reaction to the experimental condition. We performed a correlation analysis between the causal attribution index and brain activity. We hypothesized that the brain region whose activation would have a positive and negative correlation with the self-reported index of the causal attributions would be regarded as neural correlates of internal and external causal attribution of social responses, respectively. Results: We found a significant negative correlation between external causal attribution and neural responses in the right anterior temporal lobe for adaptive social behaviors. Conclusion: This region is involved in the integration of emotional and social information. These results suggest that, particularly in adaptive social behavior, the social demands of frustrating situations, which involve external causality, may be integrated by a neural response in the right anterior temporal lobe.
doi:10.1186/1471-2202-14-29 pmid:23497355 pmcid:PMC3605341 fatcat:pfnwcp5kybfw3ocqofwxtobr64

From social-signal detection to higher social cognition: an fMRI approach

Motoaki Sugiura, Yukihito Yomogida, Yoko Mano, Yuko Sassa, Toshimune Kambara, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Ryuta Kawashima
2013 Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience  
Implicit or automatic detection of social signals, which discriminate animate, intentional objects in the environment, is essential for higher social cognition and its development. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified the neural substrate of detecting simple visual social signals and examined its functional link with the mechanism of inferring anothers mental state. Healthy participants were presented with the eye-gaze shift (EG) and self-propelling motion (SP) under both
more » ... mplicit and explicit task conditions. They also performed a social role-playing game in which mental inference (MI) was implicitly prompted during the presentation of faces (implicit MI). Implicit detection of EG and SP activated the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) bilaterally, whereas the right posterior superior temporal sulcus was activated during the explicit conditions. We revealed that the individual variation in neural response in the right pMTG during implicit eye-gaze detection explains the individual tendency to recruit the regions implicated in mental-state inference (medial prefrontal cortex, temporal pole and striatum) during the implicit MI task. Our results suggest that the implicit detection of visual social signals involves the pMTG and underlies the development of higher social cognition.
doi:10.1093/scan/nst119 pmid:23887806 pmcid:PMC4158369 fatcat:62uol6k32fgb5m3zcsoe7kw3ma

Individual differences in cognitive performance and brain structure in typically developing children

Susumu Yokota, Hikaru Takeuchi, Teruo Hashimoto, Hiroshi Hashizume, Kohei Asano, Michiko Asano, Yuko Sassa, Yasuyuki Taki, Ryuta Kawashima
2015 Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience  
Individual differences in cognitive patterning is informative in understanding one's cognitive strengths and weaknesses. However, little is known about the difference in brain structures relating to individual differences in cognitive patterning. In this study, we classified typically developing children (n=277; age range, 5-16 years) into subtypes with k-means cluster analysis along with factor index scores using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Third Edition). We then applied
more » ... l-based morphometry to investigate whether significant gray-matter-volume differences existed among subtypes of cognitive patterns. Depending on the level of performance and cognitive patterning, we obtained six subtypes. One subtype that generally scored below average showed larger volume in the right middle temporal gyrus than the other five. On the other hand, two subtypes that achieved average levels of performance showed reverse-patterned factor index scores (one scored higher in Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility, and the other scored lower in these two factor index scores) and had smaller volume in the right middle temporal gyrus than the other subtypes. From these results, we concluded that cognitive discrepancy was also obvious in typically developing children and that differences in cognitive patterning are represented in brain structure.
doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2015.05.003 pmid:26046425 pmcid:PMC6989807 fatcat:vggn5lvkm5bedh2xlheiks5as4
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