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Most previous neuroimaging studies of anomalous sentence processing have used Indo-European languages to separately identify syntactic and semantic processing mechanisms. However, typologically distant languages such as Japanese use different sources of information in grammatical role assignments. Thus, we expected that the activation pattiεm during processing of anomalous sentences in Japanese would be at least p따tially different from that in other languages reported in previous studies. Wedoi:10.17791/jcs.2007.8.2.153 fatcat:ictikvgm6bhcpdjkyzajhayleu
more »... d functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activation during judgments of the correctness of normal and anomalous sentences in native Japanese speakers. We presented simple Japanese sentences as auditory stimuli. Significant activation was found in the left middle and inferior frontal regions (pars orbitaris and pars triangularis) and the superior p뼈etal lobule during processing of sentences with semantic violations. On the other hand, no preferential activation was found, except for the left anterior part of the superior temporal gyrus, during the processing of sentences with syntactic violations. Additionally, activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been reported in previous studies using Indo-European languages, was not found in our study. The results support our assumption that the left inferior frontal gyms plays a minor role in syntactic processing of simple Japanese sentences.
To investigate the neural underpinnings of the effect of nutrition, brain activity of six young healthy volunteers who had a breakfast including various nutrients was compared to when they skipped breakfast or had only sugar for breakfast by functional magnetic resonance imaging. A repeated measure counterbalanced crossover design was employed. We demonstrated that significantly higher brain activation was observed in the medial aspect of the prefrontal cortex when the subjects had adoi:10.4236/nm.2011.23026 fatcat:c23ji3gq2nfdbpcuaqfezbgdi4
more »... ly balanced breakfast while the subjects were conducting N-back tasks. This preliminary report was the first to demonstrate by means of brain imaging techniques that taking various nutrients as breakfast as well sugar has relevant impacts on underlying physiological events or cognition.
Yuko Akitsuki was supported by a grant from Mitsubishi Pharma Research. ...doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.04.091 pmid:19439183 fatcat:xaiqtkdnl5bdlilyhh7udx2sai
When we attend to other people in pain, the neural circuits underpinning the processing of first-hand experience of pain are activated in the observer. This basic somatic sensorimotor resonance plays a critical role in the primitive building block of empathy and moral reasoning that relies on the sharing of others' distress. However, the full-blown capacity of human empathy is more sophisticated than the mere simulation of the target's affective state. Indeed, empathy is about both sharing anddoi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.05.026 pmid:18573266 fatcat:arak2x7s6bfbnlcqhf5h4ar2pm
more »... nderstanding the emotional state of others in relation to oneself. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 17 typically developing children (range 7-12 yr) were scanned while presented with short animated visual stimuli depicting painful and non-painful situations. These situations involved either a person whose pain was accidentally caused or a person whose pain was intentionally inflicted by another individual. After scanning, children rated how painful these situations appeared. Consistent with previous fMRI studies of pain empathy with adults, the perception of other people in pain in children was associated with increased hemodynamic activity in the neural circuits involved in the processing of first-hand experience of pain, including the insula, somatosensory cortex, anterior midcingulate cortex, periaqueductal gray, and supplementary motor area. Interestingly, when watching another person inflicting pain onto another, regions that are consistently engaged in representing social interaction and moral behavior (the temporo-parietal junction, the paracingulate, orbital medial frontal cortices, amygdala) were additionally recruited, and increased their connectivity with the fronto-parietal attention network. These results are important to set the standard for future studies with children who exhibit social cognitive disorders (e.g., antisocial personality disorder, conduct disorder) and are often deficient in experiencing empathy or guilt.
Sugiura, M., Sassa, Y., Watanabe, J., Akitsuki, Y., Maeda, Y., Matsue, Y., et al. (2006). Cortical mechanisms of person representation: Recognition of famous and personally familiar names. ... Acknowledgments We thank Yuko Satoh for operating the MRI scanner, Atsushi Harada and Kazunori Satoh for support in data analysis, and Wataru Suzuki, Ai Fukushima, Keisuke Wakusawa, and Atsushi Sekiguchi ...doi:10.1162/jocn.2008.21150 pmid:18855557 fatcat:uqq4iybvqnaqxks7fvxn6v4geu
doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2008.09.004 pmid:18940230 pmcid:PMC2819310 fatcat:hfoobj7ge5fuln7vh5tbe4fdvy
Fatigue reflects the functioning of our physiological negative feedback system, which prevents us from overworking. When fatigued, however, we often try to suppress this system in an effort to compensate for the resulting deterioration in performance. Previous studies have suggested that the effect of fatigue on neurovascular demand may be influenced by this compensatory effort. The primary goal of the present study was to isolate the effect of compensatory effort on neurovascular demand.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056606 pmid:23457592 pmcid:PMC3573002 fatcat:4htaqnehbvfmvdw6yzyup7hjou
more »... y male volunteers participated in a series of visual and auditory divided attention tasks that steadily increased fatigue levels for 2 hours. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed during the first and last quarter of the study (Pre and Post sessions, respectively). Tasks with low and high attentional load (Low and High conditions, respectively) were administrated in alternating blocks. We assumed that compensatory effort would be greater under the High-attentional-load condition compared with the Low-load condition. The difference was assessed during the two sessions. The effect of compensatory effort on neurovascular demand was evaluated by examining the interaction between load (High vs. Low) and time (Pre vs. Post). Significant fatigue-induced deactivation (i.e., Pre.Post) was observed in the frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal cortices, in the cerebellum, and in the midbrain in both the High and Low conditions. The interaction was significantly greater in the High than in the Low condition in the midbrain. Neither significant fatigue-induced activation (i.e., Pre,Post), nor its interaction with factor Load, was identified. The observed midbrain deactivation ([PreH -PostH]. [PreE-PostE]) may reflect suppression of the negative feedback system that normally triggers recuperative rest to maintain homeostasis.
Cortical Mechanisms Involved in the Processing of Verbs: An fMRI Study Satoru Yokoyama, Tadao Miyamoto, Jorge Riera, Jungho Kim, Yuko Akitsuki, Kazuki Iwata, Kei Yoshimoto, Kaoru Horie, Shigeru Sato, and ...doi:10.1162/jocn.2006.18.8.1304 pmid:16859416 fatcat:yk2vvalyhvbiho5yisrdarpi3u
The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on cognitive functions in the elderly. Methods and Results: Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). This study was completed by 14 of the 16 membersdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029676 pmid:22253758 pmcid:PMC3256163 fatcat:tqupwu62czgfbfv3atyhqdhkxm
more »... the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed). Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. Conclusions: Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed) in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet.
Reflexology is an alternative medical practice that produces beneficial effects by applying pressure to specific reflex areas. Our previous study suggested that reflexological stimulation induced cortical activation in somatosensory cortex corresponding to the stimulated reflex area; however, we could not rule out the possibility of a placebo effect resulting from instructions given during the experimental task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate howdoi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-114 pmid:23711332 pmcid:PMC3668141 fatcat:sqveuiwhsja63muwa77g6h27sa
more »... al stimulation of the reflex area is processed in the primary somatosensory cortex when correct and pseudo-information about the reflex area is provided. Furthermore, the laterality of activation to the reflexological stimulation was investigated. Methods: Thirty-two healthy Japanese volunteers participated. The experiment followed a double-blind design. Half of the subjects received correct information, that the base of the second toe was the eye reflex area, and pseudoinformation, that the base of the third toe was the shoulder reflex area. The other half of the subjects received the opposite information. fMRI time series data were acquired during reflexological stimulation to both feet. The experimenter stimulated each reflex area in accordance with an auditory cue. The fMRI data were analyzed using a conventional two-stage approach. The hemodynamic responses produced by the stimulation of each reflex area were assessed using a general linear model on an intra-subject basis, and a two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed on an intersubject basis to determine the effect of reflex area laterality and information accuracy. Results: Our results indicated that stimulation of the eye reflex area in either foot induced activity in the left middle postcentral gyrus, the area to which tactile sensation to the face projects, as well as in the postcentral gyrus contralateral foot representation area. This activity was not affected by pseudo information. The results also indicate that the relationship between the reflex area and the projection to the primary somatosensory cortex has a lateral pattern that differs from that of the actual somatotopical representation of the body. (Continued on next page) Conclusion: These findings suggest that a robust relationship exists between neural processing of somatosensory percepts for reflexological stimulation and the tactile sensation of a specific reflex area.
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Cortical Mechanisms Involved in the Processing of Verbs: An fMRI Study Satoru Yokoyama, Tadao Miyamoto, Jorge Riera, Jungho Kim, Yuko Akitsuki, Kazuki Iwata, Kei Yoshimoto, Kaoru Horie, Shigeru Sato, and ...
The Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the Japanese Psychological Association
Yuko, KAWASHIMA Ryuta)፧ ỗݶᭅ↪ᬙؽ྾Ěȴॺᬚᢥ┨ᭅᚑᬊᬙᬐᬡᢥ┨ᭅނᬌ ᬾކᯘƫേ⊛ᓎഀᯙᬻᬦઁĚᚑᬊᬒᢥ┨ᭅۇᬙᬐᬡᢥ┨ ᭅނᬌᬾކᯘฃേ⊛ᓎഀᯙᭅᬖᬒᯞ↪ᬒ᧦ઙᬢᯜᛷ፵᎐ ᬽ፲ƫേ⊛ᓎഀ᧦ઙ፯᎐ᎵᎻᎬᎹᎨᎪᎻᎰᎽᎬ፧ ᎈᎪᎻᎰᎽᎬᎂ፧ ᎐ ᎐ᎈ፰ᯜᛸ፵᎐ᬽ፲ฃേ⊛ᓎ ഀ᧦ઙ፯᎐ᎵᎻᎬᎹᎨᎪᎻᎰᎽᎬ፧ ᎗ᎨᎺᎺᎰᎽᎬᎂ፧ ᎐ ᎐᎗ ... ᎵᎻᎬᎹᎨᎪᎻᎰᎶᎵᎂ፧ ᎐፰ᙡᯘᬽᮦᬝᬊᯙᬻᬦᙠᓎഀᙡᯘƫേ⊛ᮦฃേ ⊛ᯙᬡ 22 ߩۀ࿃ߚߞߢ↹܈ዊ᭤᭘ᮎᮞᬞᬾ೨ᬞ᭓᭨ᮧ᭴ ܕᙘᬡܕᲑᬛᬊᬙᯜؽ྾Ěᬢ↹้ᬞ ፸ නݶᬍᬗឭ␜ᬈᬿᬾ MANO Yoko, SUGIURA Motoaki, TSUKIURA Takashi, YOMOGIDA Yukihito, JEONG Hyeonjeong, SEKIGUCHI Atsushi, AKITSUKI ...doi:10.4992/pacjpa.73.0_2am053 fatcat:uk74ipqkrjf5lf24bm3wp54aqy
'' (111) Akitsuki, Yuko, and Jean Decety. ... A second defined empathy as ''the capacity to share and appreciate others' emotional and affective states in relation to oneself,'' drawing on previous work by other researchers (Akitsuki and Decety 722 ...doi:10.1080/02773945.2010.516303 fatcat:oyai2zslabhmng7dzpsc5ojqge