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三好由華 ＊2 ，神代圭輔 ＊3 ，古田裕三 ＊2 Deformation Properties of Wood in Lateral Tension Effect of tensile direction to the annual rings, moisture, and temperature on lateral tensile deformation of hinoki ( ) ＊1 Yuka ... MIYOSHI ＊2 , Keisuke KOJIRO ＊3 and Yuzo FURUTA ＊2 As the first study of maximum possible tensile deformation of wood, lateral tensile deformation properties of hinoki ( ) were investigated, and the ...doi:10.2488/jwrs.60.241 fatcat:lpowze237jc7tnwhuqcmxtcrvm
doi:10.1159/000357169 pmid:24575029 pmcid:PMC3934779 fatcat:spqvfuywsndlzo2f5j6qho5sfy
Yuka Miyamoto, Hirokazu Furuya and Kounosuke Furuta report nothing to disclose. ...doi:10.1111/ncn3.12122 pmid:28702192 pmcid:PMC5484990 fatcat:ggrbaft32jgsxcasf5a7x7ww64
Compressed wood is used as building interior material such as the floor material after fixed permanently by such as steam treatment. However, the compressed wood is swollen by absorbing water without recovering large amount of compressed deformation, despite it was fixed permanently. The dimensional stability of compressed wood for moisture is very important for safe use of building material. Therefore, swelling behavior of cell was observed in compressed wood and the relationship between celldoi:10.2472/jsms.65.343 fatcat:uzpvq237sngele65zcn6sbqutu
more »... hape and swelling behavior of cell was discussed. The swelling in radial direction of wood compressed 50% was four times larger than that of uncompressed wood. In the visual fields of a microscope, four different deformation types of cell lumens were observed. The increase in area of cell lumens is different among the four types. The increase in area of cell lumens is much different between S-shape cells and elongated shape of cells. In particular, the cells deformed to S-shape are hard to be increased the area of cell lumens by swelling. This result suggests that deformation types of cell lumens affect the swelling behaviors of compressed cells. From the above results, it might be possible to improve the dimensional instability of the compressed wood by giving deformations as increasing the S-shape cells.
This study is focused on what factor mainly affects the mechanical properties of each wood species in the lateral direction. At first, the influence of the density which is closely related to mechanical properties in the longitudinal direction was also researched in the lateral direction. Thus, the elastic modulus, strength, and failure strain in the lateral tension were measured using thin cross-sectional samples of softwoods and hardwoods, having wide varieties in the density and anatomicaldoi:10.1007/s10086-018-1730-z fatcat:5a3nbdz5ffb4nhvrywythbwc54
more »... atures. The results obtained are as follows. The linear relationship between the density and the elastic modulus which has been verified in the longitudinal direction was not observed in the lateral tension for the samples with the annual ring inclination of 90°, which samples were influenced by ray arranged parallel to the tensile direction. However, samples with the annual ring inclination of 45° showed the high correlation between the density and the elastic modulus due to the shearing deformation of the cell shape. On the other hand, the proportional relationship between the elastic modulus and strength which has been verified in the longitudinal direction was not observed in the lateral tension except for the samples with the annual ring inclination of 90°. From the results obtained, it was revealed that the mechanical properties of wood in the lateral direction were significantly affected not only by the density but also by the structural features such as deformation of cell shapes, arrangement of ray or vessels, and the degree of the transition from the earlywood to the latewood.
Journal of the Society of Materials Science Japan
Furuta, H. Aizawa, H. Yano and M. Norimoto, "Thermal-softening properties of water-swollen wood IV. ... Furuta, H. Imanishi, M. Kohara, M. Yokoyama, Y. Obata and K. Kanayama, "Thermal-softening properties of water-swollen wood VII. ...doi:10.2472/jsms.66.697 fatcat:gnizlvbt7zavzc74gfgfglqifa
In addition to antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells, aggregation of cell surface major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules induces signal transduction in antigen presenting cells that regulate cellular functions. We previously reported that crosslinking of MHC-II induced the endocytosis of MHC-II, which was associated with decreased surface expression levels in murine dendritic cells (DCs) and resulted in impaired activation of CD4+ T cells. However, the downstream signaldoi:10.3390/cells9081810 pmid:32751549 fatcat:mjamp3vk65btlk2bavtgwdfnuy
more »... induces MHC-II endocytosis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the crosslinking of MHC-II induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, which was necessary for crosslinking-induced MHC-II endocytosis. We also found that these events were suppressed by inhibitors of Syk and phospholipase C (PLC). Treatments with a phorbol ester promoted MHC-II endocytosis, whereas inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) suppressed crosslinking-induced endocytosis of MHC-II. These results suggest that PKC could be involved in this process. Furthermore, crosslinking-induced MHC-II endocytosis was suppressed by inhibitors of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Our results indicate that the crosslinking of MHC-II could stimulate Ca2+ mobilization and induce the clathrin-dependent endocytosis of MHC-II in murine DCs.
In previous studies, heat treatment was carried out at temperatures below 180℃ by impregnating a dilute inorganic salt aqueous solution into cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) sapwood. As a result, water insolubilization of the decomposition products generated by heat treatment was suggested when NH4Cl was used. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the mechanism by which the decay resistance is improved by heat treatment using NH4Cl. The changes occurring in wood components as the decaydoi:10.2472/jsms.70.528 fatcat:ats2jvw32fe6voqtmdmb5vtely
more »... e was improved were investigated. The following became clear as that result. The cold water soluble component ratio hardly increased and the absolute amount ratio of the acid insoluble component became higher as NH4Cl concentration increased, and the acid insolubilization of the pyrolysate was observed. In the heat treatment for 24 hours, there were linear relationships between the mass loss rates by the decay resistance and the heat treatment, and the acid insoluble component ratio and by the mass loss rate by the decay resistance, and the decay resistance was improved with the increase of the mass loss, that is with increase of and the acid insoluble component. The sample heat-treated with 2.5% NH4Cl at 150℃ met the performance criterion for preservation specified in JIS K 1571. In the heat treatment for 72 hours, even a smaller mass loss rate and an acid insoluble component ratio compared with the heat treatment for 24 hours, the decay resistance was improved than that of the heat treatment for 24 hours. When heat treatment was carried out at a concentration of 1.0% and 170℃ for 72 hours, the mass loss rate with heat treatment was 11.3% and the sample was satisfied the performance criterion for decay resistance. By using NH4Cl, the performance criterion for decay resistance was achieved by heat treatment at temperatures greatly lower and with decreasing mass loss by more than 7% than conventional high-temperature treatment conducted above 200℃.
Sophorolipids (SLs) are a family of glycolipid type biosurfactants, which are largely produced by the non-pathogenic yeast, Candida bombicola. In order to investigate the possibility of SLs for industrial use, here we examined the interfacial activities, cytotoxicity and biodegradability of SLs, and compared these properties with those of two lipopeptide type biosurfactants (surfactin and arthrofactin), sodium laurate (soap, SP) and four kinds of chemically synthesized surfactants including twodoi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.03.012 pmid:19619862 fatcat:6lsy3u6alrcehjgsjponoycume
more »... block-copolymer nonionic surfactants (BPs), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (AE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). It was indicated that SLs had extremely low-foaming properties and high detergency comparable with commercially available lowfoaming BPs. These interfacial activities of SLs were maintained under 100 ppm water hardness. Cytotoxicity of SLs on human keratinocytes was the same as surfactin, which has already been commercialized as cosmetic material, but higher than BPs. Moreover, biodegradability of SLs using the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals (301C, Modified MITI Test) displayed that SLs can be classified as "readily" biodegradable chemicals, which are defined as chemicals that are degraded 60% within 28 days under specified test methods. We observed 61% degradation of SLs on the eighth day of cultivation. Our results indicate that SLs are low-foaming surfactants with high detergency, which also exhibit both low cytotoxicity and readily biodegradable properties.
The characteristics and seasonal changes of body constituents (crude protein, crude lipid, free amino acids, fatty acid composition, saccharides, organic acids, inosinic acid, etc.) of three kinds of ‰ounder (Tanakius kitaharai, Eopsetta grigorjewi, and Cleishenes pinetorum) landed at Hamadaˆshing port in Shimane prefecture weredoi:10.2331/suisan.17-00079 fatcat:6k5m47zsonfg7lvsr7hyysvj24
Size-related elemental fractionation during LAL sampling was investigated separately from elemental fractionation in the ICP and the elemental fractionation in the ICP was larger than that observed during LAL sampling.doi:10.1039/c5ja00349k fatcat:vj7y4mhdyvbeha4lym7pxw4r3i
To discuss the factors that greatly affect the stabilization and destabilization of the conformation of lignin caused by changes in temperature and/or swelling, the temperature dependence of the loss tangent (tanδ) of the sample given the different cooling rates and the changes in the storage elastic modulus (E′) and the loss elastic modulus (Eʺ) over time during the swelling process were measured using the untreated or the acetylated wood samples swollen by water or organic liquids. Thedoi:10.1186/s10086-020-1856-7 fatcat:i3ktiq5avrd5znajkba5sdicua
more »... nce in the glass transition temperature of lignin mainly affects the degree of the destabilization of the conformation of lignin caused by quenching in the untreated and acetylated wood samples. The changes in E′ and Eʺ during swelling process were significantly different between the liquids in the untreated wood sample. The differences of E′ and Eʺ in the different liquids were considered to be caused by the balance of the stabilization depending on the swelling amount and passage of time and the destabilization due to the rapid swelling.
Nuclear/chromosomal integrity is an important prerequisite for the assessment of embryo quality in artificial reproductive technology. However, lipid-rich dark cytoplasm in bovine embryos prevents its observation by visible light microscopy. We performed live-cell imaging using confocal laser microscopy that allowed long-term imaging of nuclear/chromosomal dynamics in bovine in vitro fertilised (IVF) embryos. We analysed the relationship between nuclear/chromosomal aberrations and in vitrodoi:10.1038/s41598-018-25698-w pmid:29748644 pmcid:PMC5945782 fatcat:a3xrwzehhfb6djbajuhnjmpenm
more »... onic development and morphological blastocyst quality. Three-dimensional live-cell imaging of 369 embryos injected with mRNA encoding histone H2B-mCherry and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-α-tubulin was performed from single-cell to blastocyst stage for eight days; 17.9% reached the blastocyst stage. Abnormalities in the number of pronuclei (PN), chromosomal segregation, cytokinesis, and blastomere number at first cleavage were observed at frequencies of 48.0%, 30.6%, 8.1%, and 22.2%, respectively, and 13.0%, 6.2%, 3.3%, and 13.4%, respectively, for abnormal embryos developed into blastocysts. A multivariate analysis showed that abnormal chromosome segregation (ACS) and multiple PN correlated with delayed timing and abnormal blastomere number at first cleavage, respectively. In morphologically transferrable blastocysts, 30-40% of embryos underwent ACS and had abnormal PN. Live-cell imaging may be useful for analysing the association between nuclear/chromosomal dynamics and embryonic development in bovine embryos.
Cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is defined as an increase in ipsilateral cerebral blood flow (CBF). Practically, however, prompt and precise assessment of cerebral hyperperfusion is difficult because of limitations in the methodology of CBF measurement during the perioperative period. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a completely noninvasive and repeatable magnetic resonance perfusion imaging technique that uses magnetically-labelled blood water as an endogenousdoi:10.4103/2152-7806.196322 pmid:28144479 pmcid:PMC5234294 fatcat:pa3iupqs5rgrff2t5x55btysze
more »... To clarify the usefulness of ASL in the management of cerebral hyperperfusion, we investigated signal changes by ASL with a single 1.5-s post-labeling delay on visual inspection. Thirty-two consecutive patients who underwent CEA were enrolled in this retrospective study. On postoperative day 1, 22 (68.8%) and 4 (12.5%) patients exhibited increased ASL signals bilaterally (Group A) and on the operated side (Group B), respectively. Follow-up ASL showed improvement in these findings. Six (18.8%) patients showed no change (Group C). There was no apparent correlation between ASL signals on postoperative day 1 and the preoperative hemodynamic state, including the cerebrovascular reserve (P = 0.2062). Three (9.4%) patients developed cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (two in Group A and one in Group B). Coincidence in the localization of increased ASL signals and electroencephalographic abnormalities was noted in these patients. Visual analysis of ASL with a single post-labeling delay overestimates CBF and cannot identify patients at risk of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome probably because of the strong effect of the shortened arterial transit time immediately after CEA. However, ASL may be used as for screening.
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