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This study investigated the effects of viewing angle manipulated through screen size and the moderating role of players' immersion tendencies on presence experience in the context of computer game playing. Thirty participants played a third-person computer game, Tomb Raider 2, in two screen size conditions: a 12.7-in. and an 81-in. display. ANCOVA analyses showed that playing in front of a large screen led to a more favorable impression on the game character, a more positive mood change, anddoi:10.1016/j.chb.2011.11.007 fatcat:llecl5avs5e3varpkuolw2tqge
more »... nificantly higher feelings of both physical and self-presence, confirming previous research. Our findings also revealed that individuals' intrinsic immersion tendencies have a positive moderating effect on the sensation of physical and self-presence, above and beyond the influence of screen size. The results suggest that feeling of presence as well as overall game experience is determined by the interaction between technological factors and human influence.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key nuclear receptors and therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases through the regulation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Although a few drugs that target PPARs have been approved, more diverse and novel PPAR ligands are necessary to improve the safety and efficacy of available drugs. To expedite the search for new natural agonists of PPARs, we developed a screening assay based on ultrafiltrationdoi:10.3390/molecules200813753 pmid:26225954 fatcat:3zlhyw3wjrcgpf7uosaulapbtm
more »... chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) that is compatible with complex samples such as dietary foods or botanical extracts. The known PPARα and/or PPARγ ligands resveratrol and rosiglitazone were used as positive controls to validate the developed method. When applied to the screening of an Artemisia argyi extract, eupatilin was identified as a selective PPARα ligand. A PPAR competitive binding assay based on FRET detection also confirmed eupatilin as a selective PPARα agonist exhibiting a binding affinity of 1.18 μM (IC50). Furthermore, eupatilin activation of the transcriptional activity of PPARα was confirmed using a cell-based transactivation assay. Thus, ultrafiltration LC-MS is a suitable assay for the identification of PPAR ligands in complex matrixes such as extracts of dietary foods and botanicals.
Korean Journal of Plant Resources
미역쇠(Endarachne binghamiae)추출물의 멜라닌 생성 억제 효과
미역쇠(Endarachne binghamiae)추출물의 멜라닌 생성 억제 효과
In this study, we investigated the effect of 88 marine algae extracts on melanin synthesis to develop new whitening agents. Among varieties of marine algae tested, the ethyl acetate extracts from Endarachne binghamiae (EB), Scytosiphon lomentaria, Sargassum yezoense, Ecklonia cava and Sargassum fusiforme inhibited melanin synthesis in melan-a cells. EB treatment showed the strongest inhibitory activity in melanin synthesis, compared with that of other extracts. EB-mediated inhibition of melanindoi:10.7732/kjpr.2013.26.5.526 fatcat:r2yhv237zzd7pm5rdkm4ytzsyi
more »... synthesis appeared to be associated with inhibition of α-glucosidase-dependent glycosylation of tyrosinase in melan-a cells. In addition, EB treatment did not affect mushroom tyrosinase or cell-extracted tyrosinase activity in vitro. Taken together, our findings suggest that anti-browning effect of EB on skin is mediated through regulation of α-glucosidase activity and subsequent inhibition of tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis, and further development of EB as a potential agent for skin whitening. ⓒ 본 학회지의 저작권은 (사)한국자원식물학회지에 있으며, 이의 무단전재나 복제를 금합니다. 서 언 멜라닌은 검은색과 갈색계열의 eumelanin과 노란색과 붉은 계열의 pheomelanin으로 구분되며(Ito and Wakamatsu, 2003) 생물체에 널리 분포되어 있는 색소로, 피부 내 기저층에 존재하 는 melanocyte에서 생성되는 단백질 복합체이다. 자외선 노출 등의 외부자극에 대한 방어 기작으로 세포 내 멜라닌 생성이 증 가되면, 기미, 주근깨, 점, 검버섯 등의 색소침착이 일어나 피부 노화 및 손상을 초래하고, 심한 경우 흑색종까지도 유발시키는 것으로 알려져 있다(Ortonne and Nordlund, 1998). Tyrosinase 는 멜라닌 생합성의 rate-limiting 효소로서 L-tyrosine을 3,4dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)으로, L-DOPA를 DOPA-quinone으로 변환하여 멜라닌을 생합성한다(Alaluf et al., 2001; Cabanes et al., 1994; del Marmol and Beermann, 1996) . Tyrosinase는 533개의 아미노산으로 구성된 type 1 membrane glycoprotein으로 7개의 N-glycosylation site와 2개의 copperbinding domain을 가지고 있다(Branza-Nichita et al., 2000). 소포체내에서의 단백질의 N-glycosylation은 펩타이드의 합성 번역과 동시에 일어나며(Petrescu et al., 1997), 이러한 합성과 정은 올리고당의 말단에 존재하는 mannose에서 3개의 glucose 를 α-glucosidase I과 II가 끊으면서 시작되게 된다(Winchester and Fleet, 1992). 이러한 tyrosinase의 glucose trimming 과정은 일반적으로 알려진 deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ)와 같은 α-glucosidase의 저해제로 인하 여 억제되는데, 이때 tyrosinase는 급속하게 folding되어 copper 가 없는 불활성 상태가 되어 피부에 melanosome으로 이동하게 된다(Banza et al., 1999). 그러므로 α-glucosidase 저해제는 멜라닌의 생합성을 저해시킬수 있다고 알려져있다(Petrescu et al., 1997). 피부의 흑화는 미용과 관련되어서는 극복해야 할 문제점으 로 인식되므로, 장업계에서는 미백효과를 나타내는 원료를 찾 기 위한 노력을 꾸준히 진행하고 있다. 미백효과를 나타내는 물 Korean J. Plant Res. 26(5):526-532(2013) http://dx.
Tumor angiogenesis is enhanced in all types of tumors to supply oxygen and nutrients for their growth and metastasis. With the development of anti-angiogenic drugs, the importance of technology that closely monitors tumor angiogenesis has also been emerging. However, to date, the technology for observing blood vessels requires specialized skills with expensive equipment, thereby limiting its applicability only to the laboratory setting. Here, we used a preclinical optical imaging system fordoi:10.3390/bios11120471 pmid:34940228 pmcid:PMC8699707 fatcat:c4wzhvszonbrfc3zlfa53ljm4y
more »... l animals and, for the first time, observed, in real time, the entire process of blood vessel development in tumor-bearing mice injected with indocyanine green. Time-lapse sequential imaging revealed blood vessel volume and blood flow dynamics on a microscopic scale. Upon analyzing fluorescence dynamics at each stage of tumor progression, vessel volume and blood flow were found to increase as the tumor developed. Conversely, these vascular parameters decreased when the mice were treated with angiogenesis inhibitors, which suggests that the effects of drugs targeting angiogenesis can be rapidly and easily screened. The results of this study may help evaluate the efficacy of angiogenesis-targeting drugs by facilitating the observation of tumor blood vessels easily in a laboratory unit without large and complex equipment.
Purpose: This study was done to investigate nurses' knowledge of, and compliance with the multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infection control guidelines. Methods: A survey questionnaire was developed based on the institutional and national guidelines and was administered to a convenience sample of 306 nurses in a university hospital. Results: The mean score for knowledge was 33.87 (percentage of correct answers: 82.61%). The percentages of correct answers for basic concepts, route ofdoi:10.4040/jkan.2009.39.2.186 pmid:19411790 fatcat:kastzyrq2veq7dmtkzb6s6cfaq
more »... ion, hand washing/protective devices and environment management were 74.27%, 94.29%, 92.90% and 75.54% respectively. The mean compliance score was 4.15 (range: 1-5). The compliance scores for education, communication, contact precaution, disinfection, surveillance culture, and hand washing were 3.29, 4.05, 4.20, 4.50, 4.40 and 4.48 respectively. Nurses indicated "lack of time (30.06%)", "lack of means (10.78%)" and "lack of knowledge (9.48%)" as reasons for noncompliance. Conclusion: While most educational programs have focused on hand washing or use of protective devices to prevent transmission of MDRO in acute care settings, hospital nurses' knowledge of the basic concepts of MDRO and environmental management has remained insufficient. Nurses are relatively non-compliant to the guidelines in the areas of education (staff, patient, family) and communication. Comprehensive educational programs are needed to decrease hospital infection rates and to improve the health of patients.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered as desirable targets for curing metabolic diseases, even though their specific agonists have several side effects. In this study, we demonstrated a novel pharmacological property of methanol extract of Dendrobium moniliforme (DM) on metabolic disorders both in vitro and in vivo. DM extract and its ethyl acetate (EA) fraction selectively stimulated the transcriptional activity of PPARα and regulated expression of genesdoi:10.5897/jmpr12.761 fatcat:z2qkiu5vhnehtmrkejlf4f7tga
more »... ved in lipid metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes, which led to increased mitochondrial and/or peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation. Furthermore, the DM treatment significantly decreased body weight gain and feed efficiency in high-fat diet (HFD) mouse model, which were associated with a significant reduction of total cholesterol and free fatty acid levels in the serum. In addition, DM treatment significantly reduced serum levels of both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase compared to the HFDinduced obese mice. Altogether, our findings strongly suggest that DM and its EA fraction can improve glucose and lipid impairment in HFD mice model and might be considered as a therapeutic agent that is effective for improving glucose and lipid homeostasis without severe side effects.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Health care organizations face challenges in providing language services for Limited English proficiency (LEP) clients. Supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, we have been working to develop a technology for proximate simultaneous medical interpretation. In an effort to understand the relative importance of physical proximity, audio cues and visual cues to effective interpretation, we conducted two controlled trials of the comparative impact on patient and providerdoi:10.1007/978-3-642-39137-8_16 fatcat:bocxxijzpfe3jhkddvphbk6zci
more »... on of four conditions which represent the interpretation circumstances with LEP patients and monolingual providers in hospital settings; a certified interpreter present in the consultation room ("In Person"); at a remote location mediated by audio only ("Telephone"); at a remote location mediated by audio and video ("Videoconference"), and no interpreter present ("No Interpreter). In study 1, dyads of a medical student and a standardized patient were randomly assigned to In Person or No Interpreter condition on a rotating basis, producing a total of 25 encounter sessions. In Study 2, four interpretation communication modes including Videoconference and Telephone condition simulated 25 encounters. Repeated measure one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) showed preferences of patients and physicians for four different methods of interpretation. Patients expressed high satisfaction for their doctors regardless of the communication mode. Doctors' perception of the interpretation quality was also as desirable in remote communication as onsite human interpretation. Patients reported significantly greater feelings of being guarded for their privacy and were more satisfied with the interpretation quality in the remote communication via telephone over in-person interpretation.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
We describe a pilot clinical trial with a flexible telerehabilitation platform that allows a therapist to remotely monitor the exercise regimen and progress of a patient who previously suffered from a stroke. We developed virtual game environments which were host to a progressive set of training tasks from precise fine motor movements to reaching movements that involve full arm and shoulder activity. Concurrently, the therapist monitored the progress of the patient through a video channel.doi:10.1007/978-3-642-22024-1_14 fatcat:sio5xjesinaqlfz5rcppb6cxaa