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Vector Quantized Image-to-Image Translation [article]

Yu-Jie Chen, Shin-I Cheng, Wei-Chen Chiu, Hung-Yu Tseng, Hsin-Ying Lee
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Current image-to-image translation methods formulate the task with conditional generation models, leading to learning only the recolorization or regional changes as being constrained by the rich structural information provided by the conditional contexts. In this work, we propose introducing the vector quantization technique into the image-to-image translation framework. The vector quantized content representation can facilitate not only the translation, but also the unconditional distribution
more » ... hared among different domains. Meanwhile, along with the disentangled style representation, the proposed method further enables the capability of image extension with flexibility in both intra- and inter-domains. Qualitative and quantitative experiments demonstrate that our framework achieves comparable performance to the state-of-the-art image-to-image translation and image extension methods. Compared to methods for individual tasks, the proposed method, as a unified framework, unleashes applications combining image-to-image translation, unconditional generation, and image extension altogether. For example, it provides style variability for image generation and extension, and equips image-to-image translation with further extension capabilities.
arXiv:2207.13286v1 fatcat:2dt2vzc76felrdtorucxhs52ry

A Machine Learning-Based Prediction Model of LCCO2 for Building Envelope Renovation in Taiwan

Yaw-Shyan Tsay, Chiu-Yu Yeh, Yu-Han Chen, Mei-Chen Lu, Yu-Chen Lin
2021 Sustainability  
In 2015, Taiwan's government announced the "Greenhouse Gas Reduction and Management Act", the goal of which was a 50% reduction in carbon emissions by 2050, compared with 2005. The residential and commercial sectors produce approximately one third of all carbon emissions in Taiwan, and the number of construction renovation projects is much larger than that of new construction projects. In this paper, we considered the life-cycle CO2 (LCCO2) of a building envelope renovation project in Tainan
more » ... focused on local construction methods for typical row houses. The LCCO2 of 744 cases with various climate zones, orientations, and insulation and glazing types was calculated via EnergyPlus, SimaPro, and a local database (LCBA database), and the results were then used to develop a machine learning model. Our findings showed that the machine learning model was capable of predicting annual energy consumption and LCCO2. With regard to annual energy consumption, the RMSE was 227.09 kW·h (per year) and the R2 was 0.992. For LCCO2, the RMSE was 2792.47 kgCO2eq and the R2 was 0.989, which indicates a high-confidence process for decision making in the early stages of building design and renovation.
doi:10.3390/su13158209 fatcat:vbbyeedjsvcrzevncjpibj6wki

Effects of Platostoma palustre ethanolic extracts and commercial herbal tea on the cell viability of colorectal cancer cells

Yu-Hsing Lin, Yun-Xuan Chang, Chia-Chi Chen, Hsiao-Yun Chen, Ying-Ching Hung, Tzu-Yun Chi, Chia-Yu Lin, Guan-Hong Chen, Ping-Min Huang, Ya-Peng Wang, Tsung-Han Wu, Yen-Jung Lu (+5 others)
2022 Zenodo  
Platostoma palustre jelly is a traditional food. Platostoma palustre has been used as folk medicine and is effective against heat-shock, hypertension and diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of ethanolic extracts and commercial herbal tea of Platostoma palustre in inhibiting colorectal cancer cell viability. The ethanolic extracts of Platostoma palustre by using 90% ethanol for extraction. In this study, 2-fold serial dilution of 100 mg/mL Platostoma palustre
more » ... xtracts were applied. On other hand, the same dilution fold was also performed for 100% commercial herbal tea with Platostoma palustre. Additionally, CT-26 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cell lines were also used in this study. After co-culturing for 24 hours, the cell viability of CT-26 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cell lines were performed by using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. According to these data, the 1.56-100 mg/mL Platostoma palustre extracts possessed the significant inhibition effects of CT-26 colorectal cancer cell viability. The 3.13-100% commercial herbal tea with Platostoma palustre possessed the significant inhibition effects of CT-26 colorectal cancer cell viability. The 6.25-100 mg/mL Platostoma palustre extracts possessed the significant inhibition effects of HT-29 colorectal cancer cell viability. The 25-100% commercial herbal tea with Platostoma palustre possessed the significant inhibition effects of HT-29 colorectal cancer cell viability. However, the 0.39-3.13 mg/mL Platostoma palustre extracts possessed the significant promoting effects of HT-29 colorectal cancer cell viability. The 0.39-12.5% commercial herbal tea with Platostoma palustre also possessed the significant promoting effects of HT-29 colorectal cancer cell viability. Comparison of CT-26 and HT-29 cell lines was on the cell viability after Platostoma palustre ethanolic extracts an [...]
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6330470 fatcat:7mz6nborkrhtrikizshmurs4ri

(D620N) VPS35 causes the impairment of Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade and mitochondrial dysfunction in a PARK17 knockin mouse model

Ching-Chi Chiu, Yi-Hsin Weng, Ying-Zu Huang, Rou-Shayn Chen, Yu-Chuan Liu, Tu-Hsueh Yeh, Chin-Song Lu, Yan-Wei Lin, Yu-Jie Chen, Chia-Chen Hsu, Chi-Han Chiu, Yu-Ting Wang (+3 others)
2020 Cell Death and Disease  
AbstractPatients with familial type 17 of Parkinson's disease (PARK17) manifest autosomal dominant pattern and late-onset parkinsonian syndromes. Heterozygous (D620N) mutation of vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35) is genetic cause of PARK17. We prepared heterozygous VPS35D620N/+ knockin mouse, which is an ideal animal model of (D620N) VPS35-induced autosomal dominant PARK17. Late-onset loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons and motor deficits of
more » ... disease were found in 16-month-old VPS35D620N/+ mice. Normal function of VPS35-containing retromer is needed for activity of Wnt/β-catenin cascade, which participates in protection and survival of SNpc DAergic neurons. It was hypothesized that (D620N) VPS35 mutation causes the malfunction of VPS35 and resulting impaired activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Protein levels of Wnt1 and nuclear β-catenin were reduced in SN of 16-month-old VPS35D620N/+ knockin mice. Downregulated protein expression of survivin, which is a target gene of nuclear β-catenin, and upregulated protein levels of active caspase-8 and active caspase-9 were observed in SN of VPS35D620N/+ mice at age of 16 months. VPS35 is involved in controlling morphology and function of mitochondria. Impaired function of VPS35 caused by (D620N) mutation could lead to abnormal morphology and malfunction of mitochondria. A significant decrease in mitochondrial size and resulting mitochondrial fragmentation was found in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive and neuromelanin-positive SNpc DAergic neurons of 16-month-old VPS35D620N/+ mice. Mitochondrial complex I activity or complex IV activity was reduced in SN of 16-month-old VPS35D620N/+ mice. Increased level of mitochondrial ROS and oxidative stress were found in SN of 16-month-old VPS35D620N/+ mice. Levels of cytosolic cytochrome c and active caspase-3 were increased in SN of VPS35D620N/+ mice aged 16 months. Our results suggest that PARK17 mutant (D620N) VPS35 impairs activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and causes abnormal morphology and dysfunction of mitochondria, which could lead to neurodegeneration of SNpc DAergic cells.
doi:10.1038/s41419-020-03228-9 pmid:33257649 fatcat:lgt7fnyy6nhz3nyj4a2n4azcuu

BPRDP056, a novel small molecule drug conjugate specifically targeting phosphatidylserine for cancer therapy

Yun-Yu Chen, Chen-Fu Lo, Tai-Yu Chiu, Chia-Yu Hsu, Teng-Kuang Yeh, Ching-Ping Chen, Chen-Lung Huang, Chung-Yu Huang, Min-Hsien Wang, Yu-Chen Huang, Hsuan-Hui Ho, Yu-Sheng Chao (+3 others)
2021 Translational Oncology  
Chen). 1 Yun-Yu Chen, Chen-Fu Lo, Tai-Yu Chiu, Chia-Yu Hsu and Teng-Kuang Yeh contributed equally to this work.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tranon.2020.100897 pmid:33069101 pmcid:PMC7569237 fatcat:vzy6lhdyefaxpcp42b66y5spkm

Compact Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Based On Quarter Wavelength Stepped Impedance Resonators

Yu-Fu Chen, Zih-Jyun Dai, Chen-Te Chiu, Shiue-Chen Chiou, Yung-Wei Chen, Yu-Ming Lin, Kuan-Yu Chen, Hung-Wei Wu, Hsin-Ying Lee, Yan-Kuin Su, Shoou-Jinn Chang
2016 Zenodo  
Each pair of the Compact Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Based on Quarter Wavelength Stepped Impedance Resonators Yu-Fu Chen, Zih-Jyun Dai, Chen-Te Chiu, Shiue-Chen Chiou, Yung-Wei Chen, Yu-Ming Lin, Kuan-Yu  ...  Chen, Hung-Wei Wu, Hsin-Ying Lee, Yan-Kuin Su, .waset.org/1307-6892/10004208 International Science Index, Electrical and Computer Engineering Vol:10, No:4, 2016 waset.org/Publication/10004208 line model  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1123858 fatcat:ot2q7iwcxrds3lthctkr2lnkq4

Combined Assessment of Serum Alpha-Synuclein and Rab35 is a Better Biomarker for Parkinson's Disease

Hung-Li Wang, Chin-Song Lu, Tu-Hsueh Yeh, Yu-Ming Shen, Yi-Hsin Weng, Ying-Zu Huang, Rou-Shayn Chen, Yu-Chuan Liu, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Hsiu-Chen Chang, Ying-Ling Chen, Yu-Jie Chen (+5 others)
2019 Journal of Clinical Neurology  
It is essential to develop a reliable predictive serum biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD). The accumulation of alpha-synuclein (αSyn) and up-regulated expression of Rab35 participate in the etiology of PD. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the combined assessment of serum αSyn and Rab35 is a useful predictive biomarker for PD. Serum levels of αSyn or Rab35 were determined in serum samples from 59 sporadic PD patients, 19 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)
more » ... 20 multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients, and 60 normal controls (NC). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were calculated to determine the diagnostic accuracy of αSyn or/and Rab35 in discriminating PD patients from NC or atypical parkinsonian patients. The levels of αSyn and Rab35 were increased in PD patients. The serum level of Rab35 was positively correlated with that of αSyn in PD patients. Compared to analyzing αSyn or Rab35 alone, the combined analysis of αSyn and Rab35 produced a larger area under the ROC curve and performed better in discriminating PD patients from NC, MSA patients, or PSP patients. When age was dichotomized at 55, 60, 65, or 70 years, the combined assessment of αSyn and Rab35 for classifying PD was better in the group below the cutoff age than in the group above the cutoff age. Combined assessment of serum αSyn and Rab35 is a better biomarker for discriminating PD patients from NC or atypical parkinsonian patients, and is a useful predictive biomarker for younger sporadic PD patients.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2019.15.4.488 pmid:31591837 pmcid:PMC6785464 fatcat:ytw6xhvyffc77g5fbddo6mdslu

MITF functions as a tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer beyond the canonically oncogenic role

Yi-Jing Hsiao, Wen-Hsin Chang, Hsuan-Yu Chen, Yin-Chen Hsu, Su-Chin Chiu, Ching-Cheng Chiang, Gee-Chen Chang, Yi-Ju Chen, Chia-Yu Wang, Yan-Ming Chen, Chien-Yu Lin, Yu-Ju Chen (+3 others)
2020 Aging  
Hsuan-Yu Chen and Chien-Yu Lin were responsible for the statistical analysis. Yan-Ming Chen analyzed the gene correlation.  ...  Yi-Ju Chen and Yu-Ju Chen provided and analyzed the transcriptome of the Taiwanese cohort. Yi-Jing Hsiao and Sung-Liang Yu drafted and edited the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.18632/aging.202171 pmid:33293474 pmcid:PMC7835003 fatcat:dle6gkql45bubesrpnx7k3saxi

Simultaneous induction of autophagy and toll-like receptor signaling pathways by graphene oxide

Guan-Yu Chen, Hong-Jie Yang, Chia-Hsin Lu, Yu-Chan Chao, Shiaw-Min Hwang, Chiu-Ling Chen, Kai-Wei Lo, Li-Yu Sung, Wen-Yi Luo, Hsing-Yu Tuan, Yu-Chen Hu
2012 Biomaterials  
Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have sparked growing interests in biological and medical applications. This study examined how macrophage, the primary immune cell type engaging microbes, responded to GO treatment. We uncovered that incubation of macrophage cell RAW264.7 with GO elicited autophagy in a concentration-dependent manner, as evidenced by the appearance of autophagic vacuoles and activation of autophagic marker proteins. Such GO-induced autophagy was observed in various cell lines and
more » ... n macrophage treated with GO of different sizes. Strikingly, GO treatment of macrophage provoked the toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling cascades and triggered ensuing cytokine responses. Molecular analysis identified that TLR4 and TLR9 and their downstream signaling mediators MyD88, TRAF6 and NF-kB played pivotal roles in the GO-induced inflammatory responses. By silencing individual genes in the signaling pathway, we further unveiled that the GO-induced autophagy was modulated by TLR4, TLR9 and was dependent on downstream adaptor proteins MyD88, TRIF and TRAF6. Altogether, we demonstrated that GO treatment of cells simultaneously triggers autophagy and TLR4/TLR9-regulated inflammatory responses, and the autophagy was at least partly regulated by the TLRs pathway. This study thus suggests a mechanism by which cells respond to nanomaterials and underscores the importance of future safety evaluation of nanomaterials.
doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.05.064 pmid:22704844 fatcat:3jjijt62lrdhjecgldq7e5ls7q

Draft Genome Sequence of Manganese-Oxidizing Bacterium Massilia sp. Strain Mn16-1_5, Isolated from Serpentine Soil in Taitung, Taiwan

Sheng-Chung Chen, Chuen-Huey Chiu, Pin-Tzu Chiu, Yo-Chia Chen, Yong-Hong Lin, Chiu-Chung Young, Juei-Yu Chiu, J. Cameron Thrash
2019 Microbiology Resource Announcements  
Massilia sp. strain Mn16-1_5 was isolated from serpentine soil. This strain is able to oxidize manganese and has the potential for bioremediation of chromium. Here, we present a 5.53-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain with a G+C content of 64.8% that might provide more information for species delineation and oxidase genes in this strain.
doi:10.1128/mra.00694-19 pmid:31395643 pmcid:PMC6687930 fatcat:h6rkfqluevbxzha2pbhqlzdieu

Bacterial Genotoxin-Coated Nanoparticles for Radiotherapy Sensitization in Prostate Cancer

Yu-An Chen, Yi-Ru Lai, Hui-Yu Wu, Yen-Ju Lo, Yu-Fang Chang, Chiu-Lien Hung, Chun-Jung Lin, U-Ging Lo, Ho Lin, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Yu-Hsin Lin (+1 others)
2021 Biomedicines  
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men and usually becomes refractory because of recurrence and metastasis. CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein, serves as a receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA). It has been found to be abundantly expressed in cancer stem cells (CSCs) that often exhibit a radioresistant phenotype. Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), produced by Campylobacter jejuni, is a tripartite genotoxin composed of CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC subunits. Among the
more » ... , CdtB acts as a type I deoxyribonuclease (DNase I), which creates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Nanoparticles loaded with antitumor drugs and specific ligands that recognize cancerous cell receptors are promising methods to overcome the therapeutic challenges. In this study, HA-decorated nanoparticle-encapsulated CdtB (HA-CdtB-NPs) were prepared and their targeted therapeutic activity in radioresistant PCa cells was evaluated. Our results showed that HA-CdtB-NPs sensitized radioresistant PCa cells by enhancing DSB and causing G2/M cell-cycle arrest, without affecting the normal prostate epithelial cells. HA-CdtB-NPs possess maximum target specificity and delivery efficiency of CdtB into the nucleus and enhance the effect of radiation in radioresistant PCa cells. These findings demonstrate that HA-CdtB-NPs exert target specificity accompanied with radiomimetic activity and can be developed as an effective strategy against radioresistant PCa.
doi:10.3390/biomedicines9020151 pmid:33557143 pmcid:PMC7913852 fatcat:dvx3hmsvqjhuzc2ukh7x6wc5uq

Comorbidity and dementia: A nationwide survey in Taiwan

Ting-Bin Chen, Szu-Yu Yiao, Yu Sun, Huey-Jane Lee, Shu-Chien Yang, Ming-Jang Chiu, Ta-Fu Chen, Ker-Neng Lin, Li-Yu Tang, Chung-Chih Lin, Pei-Ning Wang, Kewei Chen
2017 PLoS ONE  
Comorbid medical diseases are highly prevalent in the geriatric population, imposing hardship on healthcare services for demented individuals. Dementia also complicates clinical care for other co-existing medical conditions. This study investigated the comorbidities associated with dementia in the elderly population aged 65 years and over in Taiwan. Methods We conducted a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey; participants were selected by computerized random sampling from all 19
more » ... Taiwan counties between December 2011 and March 2013. After exclusion of incomplete or erroneous data, 8,456 subjects were enrolled. Of them, 6,183 were cognitively normal (control group), 1,576 had mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 697 had dementia. We collected information about types of comorbidities (i.e., vascular risk factors, lung diseases, liver diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, and cancers), Charlson comorbidity index score, and demographic variables to compare subjects with normal cognition, MCI, and dementia. Results Regardless of the cognitive condition, over 60% of the individuals in each group had at least one comorbid disease. The proportion of subjects possessing at least three comorbidities was higher in those with cognitive impairment (MCI 20.9%, dementia 27.3%) than in control group (15%). Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most common comorbidities. The mean number of comorbidities and Charlson comorbidity index score were greater in PLOS ONE | https://doi.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0175475 pmid:28403222 pmcid:PMC5389824 fatcat:3ya5d7iedbedrpqlpjtqnkwhj4

Evaluation of genotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of Platostoma palustre by micronucleus assay

Yu-Hsing Lin, Yun-Xuan Chang, Tzu-Yun Chi, Hsiao-Yun Chen, Ying-Ching Hung, Chia-Yu Lin, Guan-Hong Chen, Ya-Peng Wang, Ping-Min Huang, Tsung-Han Wu, Yen-Jung Lu, Chien-Chao Chiu (+5 others)
2022 International Journal of Science and Research Archive  
Platostoma palustre (Pp) jelly is a traditional food. Pp has been used as folk medicine and is effective against heat-shock, hypertension and diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ethanolic extracts of Pp' genotoxicity. The ethanolic extracts of Pp by using 40% ethanol for extraction. Evaluation of genotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of Pp by micronucleus assay was performed in vivo. During the in vivo genotoxicity-evaluated experiment, the experimental animal's clinical
more » ... behavior, body weight (BW), food consumption, and the percentage of RET/RBCs (reticulocytes/red blood cells) and MN-RET/RETs (micronucleated reticulocytes/reticulocytes) after the treatments of Pp ethanolic extracts were evaluated. Both sexes Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were given three daily treatments by intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/kg of mitomycin C (genotoxicity induction) or by oral route of 200 μL of PBS (normal control group). Until 48 h after the last treatment, K2-EDTA-anticoagulated peripheral blood specimens were collected. These blood samples were processed for the microscopy-based analysis using Giemsa stain and the percentage of reticulocytes and micronucleated reticulocytes was determined. The results were shown that the experimental animal's clinical behaviors were normal in all groups. The BW and food consumption were no significant difference between all groups. RET/RBCs (‰) in male or female ICR mice in the negative control group, the normal control group, the high dose of Pp ethanolic extract group, the middle dose of Pp ethanolic extract group, and the low dose of Pp ethanolic extract group were respectively 7.8 ± 0.8 / 8.6 ± 0.8, 23.2 ± 1.5 / 22.1 ± 1.3, 22.8 ± 1.6 / 22.1 ± 1.7, 23.2 ± 1.5 / 22.6 ± 1.0 and 22.2 ± 1.9 / 23.9 ± 1.9; MN-RET/RETs (‰) in male or female ICR mice in the negative control group, the normal control group, the high dose of Pp ethanolic extract group, the middle dose of Pp ethanolic extract group, and the low dose of Pp ethanolic extract group were 2.0 ± 0.0 / 2.0 ± 0.0, 43.2 ± 10.6 / 39.6 ± 10.9, 1.8 ± 0.4 / 1.6 ± 0.5, 1.6 ± 0.5 / 1.4 ± 0.5, and 1.8 ± 0.4 / 1.6 ± 0.5, respectively. Both RET/RBCs (‰) and MN-RET/RETs (‰) in male or female ICR mice in the negative control group were significantly difference than the other groups (p < 0.001). Taken all results together, Pp ethanolic extracts were without genotoxicity. Therefore, Pp ethanolic extracts were safety.
doi:10.30574/ijsra.2022.5.1.0051 fatcat:6kyyxcfkjfgltpfrxvea262zqi

Arecoline Promotes Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells through Activating the EGFR/Src/FAK Pathway

Chih-Hsiang Chang, Mei-Chih Chen, Te-Huan Chiu, Yu-Hsuan Li, Wan-Chen Yu, Wan-Ling Liao, Muhammet Oner, Chang-Tze Yu, Chun-Chi Wu, Tsung-Ying Yang, Chieh-Lin Teng, Kun-Yuan Chiu (+6 others)
2019 Toxins  
Chen, Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Hsing University.  ...  Chen, Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Hsing University.  ... 
doi:10.3390/toxins11040185 pmid:30925742 pmcid:PMC6521018 fatcat:htjhha4uefhopjmi7ukykowcoe

Evaluation of eye protection efficacy of sweet potato leaf ethanolic extracts In Vivo

Yu-Hsing Lin, Yun-Xuan Chang, Hsiao-Yun Chen, Ping-Min Huang, Chia-Yu Lin, Tzu-Yun Chi, Guan-Hong Chen, Ying-Ching Hung, Ya-Peng Wang, Tsung-Han Wu, Yen-Jung Lu, Chien-Chao Chiu (+5 others)
2022 Magna Scientia Advanced Biology and Pharmacy  
Many studies have been verified that human retina contains a large amount of carotenoids such as lutein and zeaxanthin, especially the concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in the retina and macula are 1,000 times higher than other tissues in human. Therefore, lutein and zeaxanthin play an important role in the health of human vision. The research and development (R&D) of agricultural functional materials or products for eye protection is urgently needed. In this experiment, except for the
more » ... mal control group, the other groups were irradiated with light-emitting diode (LED) light at the range of 600-1,000 lux for 12 hours / day for 6 weeks. All BALB/c mice were fed with the normal composition for 6 weeks during the experiment. BALB/c mice in the negative control group and three sweet potato leaf ethanolic extracts (SPLEE) groups were fed SPLEE [0.31, 0.62, and 1.23 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively] for 6 weeks by gavage during the experiment. During the experiment, the eye status of BALB/c mice in each group were observed every week. At the end of the experiment, the BALB/c mice were sacrificed and their eyes in each group were collected for hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, free radical detection, and the detection of cytokine gene expressions (IL-6; interleukin-6 and TNF-α; tumor necrosis factor-α) and caspase-3 gene expression. Based on the results of this experiment, no obvious lesions by ophthalmoscopy were observed in the eyes of BALB/c mice in three SPLEE groups. H&E and IHC staining results showed that the consumption of high dose (1.23 mg/kg BW) of SPLEE significantly improved retinal outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, which was compared to the negative control group. Other evaluation indicators included retinal out segments-inner segments (OS/IS) thickness, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining, and middle-wavelength opsin (M-opsin) staining, showed no significant difference among three SPLEE groups and the negative control group. The free radical detection results showed that no statistical difference between all groups (p > 0.05), however, the trend showed that the free radicals in the high and middle doses (1.23 and 0.62 mg/kg BW) of SPLEE groups were lower than those in the negative control group and the low dose (0.31 mg/kg BW) of SPLEE group. The results of IL-6 and TNF-α gene expression showed that the normal control group and three SPLEE groups were significantly lower than the negative control group (p < 0.05), while the gene expression of caspase-3 was not significantly differences between all groups (p > 0.05). Taken these results together, the high dose SPLEE (1.23 mg/kg BW) has the better potential for improving the retinal ONL thickness and anti-inflammatory effects under LED irradiation.
doi:10.30574/msabp.2022.5.2.0059 fatcat:xuupmddjgvap5beu4fobitg6bm
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