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Network coding is a reasonable way to increase network efficiency in response to an increase of sensed data in the Internet of Things (IoT). In network coding, intermediate nodes combine packets received from neighboring nodes, transform, and transmit encoded packets that can be decoded at the destination. This scheme is based on trust among nodes. If any malicious node joins the network, it can act as an intermediate node that could fabricate encoded packets. It might be more difficult todoi:10.3390/s20041180 pmid:32098029 pmcid:PMC7070977 fatcat:tfzdm33gx5bbzfqtwndfl26afm
more »... ify the authenticity of such encoded packets since packets that are received at the destination might not originate from a single source, but be combined with several other packets originating from multiple sources. In this paper, we propose a scheme on how to detect attacked packets among the received packets at a destination and how to recover the original message from the packets including the attacked "look-like-valid" packets. This scheme shows that a destination could recover the valid message with just the received packets including some attacked packets and will result in a quite efficient performance in network coding.
The fluorine-containing modified polyurea was synthesized using PTPE-diol in order to improve the film property. The weight-average molecular weight of the prepared PFDI was found to increase from 2480 to 3170 with increasing PFPE-diol content. The C-F bond of PFDI compounds was confirmed by the 1 H NMR and FTIR, and the intensity of C-F bond decreased as PFPE-diol content decreased. As a result of increasing fluorine content, the film synthesized from PFDI and hardening agent showed that thedoi:10.7317/pk.2015.39.6.902 fatcat:p72yqceujbadzl7unr3x6sxpfu
more »... aracteristics of thermal stability, weather resistance, chemical resistance, stain resistance and abrasion resistance were increased. However, the performances of the adhesion strength of the coating film, the hardness, the cathode separation, the tensile strength, elongation and tear strength were relatively decreased.
Protothecosis is a rare infection caused by achlorophyllic algae called Prototheca. Approximately 117 cases have been described in the literature world wide, the majority caused by the species P. wickerhamii. Cutaneous infection is the most common and cases of tenosynovitis are very rare. A local or systemic immunosuppressive factor is seen in half of the cases of protothecosis. We report a case of protothecal tenosynovitis in a middle-aged, immunocompetent woman that developed after shedoi:10.1007/s11999-008-0487-x pmid:18791778 pmcid:PMC2628239 fatcat:5swoex5mpra3do3zksatnpned4
more »... d sclerosing therapy of varicose veins. Administration of itraconazole with surgical débridement produced a good response. We also review the published cases of protothecal tenosynovitis.
In this paper, we propose a hybrid location-update scheme, which combines the time-and movement-based locationupdate approaches. In the proposed scheme, a mobile user updates its location after the following two events have occurred: First, the mobile crossed n cell boundaries, and then, a time interval T elapsed. We also examine the inverse scheme, where an update is performed after the n boundary crossings occur subsequent to the time interval T . We evaluate our scheme by applying it todoi:10.1109/tvt.2008.923661 fatcat:wwe4es76mbcqvmpjvjfw5eotqi
more »... us mobility models, such as exponential cell-residence times with a constant mobility pattern, exponential cell-residence times with a gamma-distributed mobility pattern, hyperexponential cell-residence times, and cell-residence times with a small coefficient of variation. From our numerical analysis and simulation results, we learn that the movement-based-only method (i.e., T = 0) performs well when the coefficient of variation of the cell-residence time is relatively small. However, when the coefficient of variation is large, the proposed hybrid scheme (i.e., T > 0, n > 0) outperforms each of the two approaches, namely, the time-and movement-based location-update schemes, when these schemes are individually applied. Index Terms-Hybrid-location update, mobile networks, movement-based location update, time-base location update.
In recent years, as all actions of Internet users become information, the importance of personal information is emphasized, but in reality, the management of personal information is still insufficient. With the advent of the concept of sharing systems such as the sharing economy, the numbers of IoT application services (for example, a healthcare service using sharing IoT devices, or a vehicle sharing system with IoT devices) using users' personal information are increasing, but the risk ofdoi:10.3390/s21227592 pmid:34833668 pmcid:PMC8621833 fatcat:amy5vk7bejedbdwc6dsk7cw7fq
more »... personal information is not managed. To solve this issue, the European GDPR stipulates the content of personal information protection. In this paper, we present a method to securely manage personal information in IoT devices in IoT application environments in accordance with the GDPR. We first describe the lifecycle stages of personal information occurring in IoT application services and propose a method to securely manage personal information at each stage of the lifecycle according to the flow of personal information in IoT devices. We also evaluated the usefulness and applicability of the proposed scheme through two service scenarios. Since the proposed method satisfies the requirements for personal information management in IoT application environments, it is expected to contribute to the development of the IoT business field that handles personal information.
Purpose: This multiinstitutional study was to investigate the accuracy of the Kattan nomograms for the prediction of recurrence after definitive surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in Korean patients and develop a nomogram revised to complement the shortcomings. Materials and Methods: Clinical and pathological data of 1,866 patients with RCC who had been followed for at least 2 years after surgery in each participating institutes were reviewed as well as evidence of disease recurrence,doi:10.4111/kju.2006.47.9.963 fatcat:roikzdddhrgefa64ep2bqy7uh4
more »... d to include local recurrence and distant metastasis. Accuracy of the Kattan nomograms predictability in tumors 7cm or less was tested by calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) and actuarial recurrence-free survival by Kaplan-Meier method. We used the Cox proportional hazard analysis to identify significant variables and develop prediction nomogram, and internally validated by bootstrapping method. Mean follow-up was 56.5 months (24-184). Results: Recurrence occurred in 12.5% of the patients and correlated with the pathological stage, with 4.3%, 7.9%, 15.0%, 22.6%, 38.4%, 58.3% for stages T1a, T1b, T2, T3a, T3b/c and T4, respectively (p 0.001). The AUC of the Kattan nomograms was 0.276. Factors significantly predictive of recurrence were T stage (p 0.0001), presentation (p=0.006), preoperative hemoglobin (p=0.023) and gender (p=0.032). Actuarial 60-month recurrencefree survival was 87.9% and using the prognostic factors, nomogram predicting 60-month recurrence-free survival was constructed. Conclusions: Korean nomogram complementing the preexisting nomograms for the prediction of recurrence-free survival after definitive surgery for RCC has been constructed, which may be useful in patient prognostication, counseling and follow-up planning. (Korean J Urol 2006;47:963-967) ꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏꠏ
Introduction Carcinosarcoma is a malignant tumor consisting of both epithelial and mesenchymal components that rarely occurs in stomach. It typically occurs in uterus, breast, thyroid, lung, and upper gastrointestinal system. 1 Endoscopic characteristics include excessive thickening of the gastric wall and huge ulcerative tumor, which are easily mistaken for Borrman type III of gastric adenocarcinoma. 2, 3 Histological identification of the coexistence of carcinomatous and sarcomatousdoi:10.5230/jgc.2013.13.1.69 pmid:23610722 pmcid:PMC3627810 fatcat:b7vbv6xt7jeanpptdleg5arjze
more »... of the tumor as well as the immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis is critical for diagnosis. We report a case of a 51-year-old woman with gastric carcinosarcoma along with its clinical, macroscopic and histopathologic features. Case Report The patient was a 51-year-old woman with 2-month-history of epigastric pain, dysphagia, anorexia, weight loss (4 kilos over 2 months, 7.2%), and intermittent bloody vomit. At the time of admission, patient had an acute ill-looking appearance. General examination revealed marked pallor and tenderness in the epigastric region. Most of routine laboratory parameters were found to be in normal range except for the markers of hypochromic anemia: hemoglobin 6.1 g/dl, hematocrit 19%, mean corpuscular volume 85.5 fL, iron blood level 9 μg/dl, iron-binding capacity 222 μg/dl, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate 120 mm/h. The levels of tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) were 1.1 ng/ml and 9.7 ng/ml, respectively (normal CEA<5, CA 19-9<37). Endoscopic examination revealed a huge ulcerative lesion that infiltrated from the antrum to the mid-body with its base covered with old blood clot. A preoperative endoscopic biopsy revealed the poorly differentiated, invasive malignant round cell neoplasm (Fig.
and control plants using the Plant RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen, CA, USA) and using the GeneFishing TM DEG kit (Seegene, Seoul, South Korea), DEGs were identified by an ACP-based PCR method as described by Lee ... heat-shock proteins are usually undetectable in vegetative tissue under normal growth conditions, but can be induced by developmental stimuli or by environmental stresses including heat (Sun et al. 2002; Lee ...doi:10.1007/s11738-011-0853-2 fatcat:kmzen2nyivh5hjcpcjzt4lumma
Lee is with the Information Security Project Department, Korea Information Security Agency, Songpa-Gu, Seoul 138-803, Korea (e-mail: ylee@kisa. or.kr). ... Lee is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Kangwon-Do, 200-701, Korea (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Y. ...doi:10.1109/lcomm.2002.804217 fatcat:vdizhslrzjhzhe3e6qswicj5rm
Coaxial nanofibers with poly(styrene-block-isoprene) (PS-b-PI)/magnetite nanoparticles as core and silica as shell are fabricated using electrospinning.     Thermally stable silica helps to anneal the fibers above the glass transition temperature of PS-b-PI and form ordered nanocomposite morphologies. Monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles (NPs; 4 nm) are synthesized and surface coated with oleic acid to provide marginal selectivity towards an isoprene domain. When 4 wt% nanoparticlesdoi:10.1002/smll.200800279 pmid:18932189 fatcat:m5yh27duhjfejp2tg4ygm4raca
more »... are added to symmetric PS-b-PI, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of microtomed electrospun fibers reveal that NPs are uniformly dispersed only in the PI domain, and that the confined lamellar assembly in the form of alternate concentric rings of PS and PI is preserved. For 10 wt% NPs, a morphology transition is seen from concentric rings to a co-continuous phase with NPs again uniformly dispersed in the PI domains. No aggregates or loss of PI selectivity is found in spite of interparticle attraction. Magnetic properties are measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer and all nanocomposite fiber samples exhibit superparamagnetic behavior.
Chronic inflammation induces cancer and cancer induces local tissue damage with systemic inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential relationship between the severity of inflammation and prognosis in cancer patients. This study enrolled 220 patients from January 2002 to December 2006 who underwent gastric surgery. We evaluated the relationship between preoperative inflammatory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) anddoi:10.5230/jgc.2013.13.2.111 pmid:23844326 pmcid:PMC3705131 fatcat:ng5mle4fzvgwxgt5m7geu3lyz4
more »... clinicopathological factors. Survival outcomes were compared according to the extent of inflammation. Significant elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate was related with old age, increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, decreased hemoglobin, increased carcinoembryonic antigen, increased tumor size and advanced TNM stage. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly correlated with old age, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and advanced TNM stage. In the univariate analysis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio had significantly poorer survival than those without elevation (all P<0.05). However, the multivariate analysis failed to prove erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as independent prognostic factors. The elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were correlated with poor prognosis in the univariate analysis and there was a strong correlation between inflammatory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) and tumor progression. Thus, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are considered useful as follow-up factors.
JISEONG LEE (Student Member, IEEE) received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the Kumoh Institute Technology, Gumi, South Korea, in 2018. ... YONG SIN KIM (Senior Member, IEEE) received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electronics from Korea University, Seoul, South Korea, in 1999 and 2003, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering ...doi:10.1109/access.2020.2997353 fatcat:p2vfpy5iynfnffbrksvtpf6xia
Parasite N. caninum KBA-2 strain (14) and T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites were maintained according to Lee et al. (13) . ... gels, image analysis, in-gel digestion of protein spots on gels, matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and database searches were performed as Lee ...doi:10.1385/cp:1:3-4:235 fatcat:fobczvjalnce7ezazjdvpbqqka
Let ν be either the Ozsváth-Szabó τ-invariant or the Rasmussen s-invariant, suitably normalized. For a knot K, Livingston and Naik defined the invariant t_ν(K) to be the minimum of k for which ν of the k-twisted positive Whitehead double of K vanishes. They proved that t_ν(K) is bounded above by -TB(-K), where TB is the maximal Thurston-Bennequin number. We use a blowing up process to find a crossing change formula and a new upper bound for t_ν in terms of the unknotting number. As anarXiv:1712.03486v2 fatcat:w2tx534nt5e6xhrm4sqjlr26iu
more »... n, we present infinitely many knots K such that the difference between Livingston-Naik's upper bound -TB(-K) and t_ν(K) can be arbitrarily large.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupotomy for the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis. There were 9 databases searched to retrieve randomized controlled trials until August 3, 2019 regarding acupotomy versus conventional Western medicine, conventional Western medicine treatment with and without acupotomy, and Korean medicine treatment with and without acupotomy, and meta-analysis was performed. Of 303 potentially relevant studies retrieved,doi:10.13045/jar.2020.00339 fatcat:j6llboldpvekpnnk6msb5255la
more »... were systematically reviewed. All studies were conducted in China. Effective rate, visual analogue scale, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index were used as the evaluation scales. The Ashi point was selected most frequently. In all studies, the intervention group was more effective than the control group. Meta-analysis revealed that acupotomy showed statistically significant beneficial results. Although acupotomy had a beneficial effect on knee osteoarthritis, the risk of bias of the included studies was not low. The majority of the results from the evaluation scales used were highly heterogeneous (> 50%) which reduced confidence in the estimation of effect, or had a small sample size. Further clinical research and development is required in the future.
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