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A young woman with slowly progressive muscular weakness and atrophy localized in both thighs is reported. Laboratory, electromyographic and histological findings suggested that the patient suffered from chronic myositis with a background of autoimmune disorder. Quadriceps myositis is a rare condition. The previously reported cases of this disease in the literature are reviewed. (Internal Medicine 31: 926-929, 1992)doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.31.926 fatcat:6by5topbardazohb5seszt5ppm
This is the first confirmed report of terbinafine low susceptibility Trichophyton rubrum, BGUTR13, in Japan collected from the whole sole of the elderly over 65s with cotton swab sampling method at the special nursing care-home in 2016. We revealed BGUTR13 showed low susceptibility (MIC, >128 μg/mL) against terbinafine. But, BGUTR13 exhibited normal susceptibility to itraconazole, did not showed cross-resistance. Also, the squalene epoxidase gene of terbinafine low susceptibility strain BGUTR13doi:10.4265/bio.23.151 pmid:30249966 fatcat:m7jxiimn3nc2rfv5uj5udprphu
more »... which is the target of terbinafine contained newly confirmed one mismatch. We suggested the possibility that the resistance mechanism of terbinafine low susceptibility strains is due to the loss of sensitivity of squalene epoxidase inhibitors and does not affect antifungal drugs with other different mechanisms of action.
Study objectives: We performed a clinical trial of laser-induced fluorescence endoscopy (LIFE) for detection of precancerous lesions and cancer including carcinoma in situ (CIS), which are difficult to detect by white-light bronchoscopy. Design: Results with LIFE were compared with the criterion standard, white-light bronchoscopy. The evaluation of these endoscopic results spectrofluorometrically was examined, and pixels of LIFE images composed of digital signals for the intensities of red anddoi:10.1378/chest.118.6.1776 pmid:11115472 fatcat:55mcdn4mrzdtvony3jy55z7eny
more »... reen were analyzed. Setting: Tertiary-level hospital treating referrals and subjects with suspicious results in mass screening. Patients: We examined 65 subjects with suspected lung cancer by both methods, and performed biopsy on 216 lesions. Results: The accuracy of diagnosis by white-light bronchoscopy, with histopathologic results as the standard, was 48.6%. The accuracy by LIFE was 72.7%. The sensitivity of conventional bronchoscopy for detection of severe dysplasia (21 biopsy specimens) or cancer (28 biopsy specimens) was 61.2% and specificity was 85.0%. With results by LIFE added, these values were 89.8% and 78.4%, respectively. Of nine patients with CIS, only LIFE showed one lesion, and only LIFE showed the extent of seven of the lesions. The autofluorescence of eight lesions was measured spectrofluorometrically; normal bronchial tissue, severe dysplasia, and cancerous tissue had spectral differences. The red/green intensity of cancers on histograms of LIFE images generally was greater than the ratios for metaplasia or normal bronchial wall. Conclusions: Use of both methods should facilitate early detection. Evaluation by spectrofluorometry and analysis of digital signal intensity of results by LIFE make results more objective.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Parkinsonism
Yokoe et al.  demonstrated the positive effect of HF-rTMS over the M1 and SMA on motor symptoms in patients with PD  . ...doi:10.4172/2161-0460.1000424 fatcat:hxtourfygvbd7n3hi2bxd3c2je
Research on neural basis of inhibitory control has been extensively conducted in various parts of the world. It is often implicitly assumed that neural basis of inhibitory control is universally similar across cultures. Here, we investigated the extent to which culture modulated inhibitory-control brain activity at both cultural-group and cultural-value levels of analysis. During fMRI scanning, participants from different cultural groups (including Caucasian-Americans and Japanese-Americansdoi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.05.061 pmid:27263507 fatcat:z67syxxb6jdzpazrlotsyjcxum
more »... ng in the United States and native Japanese living in Japan) performed a Go/No-Go task. They also completed behavioral surveys assessing cultural values of behavioral consistency, or the extent to which one's behaviors in daily life are consistent across situations. Across participants, the Go/No-Go task elicited stronger neural activity in several inhibitory-control areas, such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Importantly, at the cultural-group level, we found variation in left IFG (L-IFG) activity that was explained by a cultural region where participants lived in (as opposed to race). Specifically, L-IFG activity was stronger for native Japanese compared to Caucasian-and Japanese-Americans, while there was no systematic difference in L-IFG activity between Japanese-and Caucasian-Americans. At the cultural-value level, we found that participants who valued being "themselves" across situations (i.e., having high endorsement of behavioral consistency) elicited stronger rostral ACC activity during the Go/No-Go task. Altogether, our findings provide novel insight into how culture modulates the neural basis of inhibitory control.
Analyses of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have been performed to investigate pathophysiological changes in the brains of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relative to typically developing controls (CTLs). However, the results of these previous studies, which have reported mixed patterns of hypo- and hyperconnectivity, are controversial, likely due to the small sample sizes and limited age range of included participants. Methods: To overcome this issue,doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00252 pmid:31057443 pmcid:PMC6482335 fatcat:6gzgxzqbunapnckrc74jw4wc5q
more »... we analyzed multisite neuroimaging data from a large sample (n = 626) of male participants aged between 5 and 29 years (mean age = 13 years). The rs-fMRI data were preprocessed using SPM12 and DPARSF software, and signal changes in 90 brain regions were extracted. Multiple linear regression was used to exclude the effect of site differences in connectivity data. Subcortical-cortical connectivity was computed using connectivities in the hippocampus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, putamen, pallidum, and thalamus. Eighty-eight connectivities in each structure were compared between patients with ASD and CTLs using multiple linear regression with group, age, and age × group interactions, head movement parameters, and overall connectivity as variables. Results: After correcting for multiple comparisons, patients in the ASD group exhibited significant increases in connectivity between the thalamus and 19 cortical regions distributed throughout the fronto-parietal lobes, including the temporo-parietal junction and posterior cingulate cortices. In addition, there were significant decreases in connectivity between the amygdala and six cortical regions. The mean effect size of hyperconnectivity (0.25) was greater than that for hypoconnectivity (0.08). No other subcortical structures showed significant group differences. A group-by-age interaction was observed for connectivity between the thalamus and motor-somatosensory areas. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that pathophysiological changes associated with ASD are more likely related to thalamocortical hyperconnectivity than to amygdala-cortical hypoconnectivity. Future studies should examine full sets of clinical and behavioral symptoms in combination with functional connectivity to explore possible biomarkers for ASD.
Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research discipline that investigates cultural variation in psychological, neural and genomic processes as a means of articulating the bidirectional relationship of these processes and their emergent properties. Research in cultural neuroscience integrates theory and methods from anthropology, cultural psychology, neuroscience and neurogenetics. Here, we review a set of core theoretical and methodological challenges facing researchers when planning anddoi:10.1093/scan/nsq063 pmid:20592044 pmcid:PMC2894689 fatcat:tyjwux22kbcyrgribbajjx3zla
more »... ting cultural neuroscience studies, and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges. In particular, we focus on the problems of defining culture and culturally appropriate experimental tasks, comparing neuroimaging data acquired from different populations and scanner sites and identifying functional genetic polymorphisms relevant to culture. Implications of cultural neuroscience research for addressing current issues in population health disparities are discussed.
A Seasonal Variation of Nutritional Status on Vitamins B_1 and C in Village Women
A Seasonal Variation of Nutritional Status on Vitamins B_1 and C in Village Women
The urinary excretion of vitamin B " vitamin C, and creatinine in 22 hea 工 thy village women was determined in different seasons , to evaluate their nutritional status with respect to the vitamins . The amount of the vita 皿 ins excreted in each of the urine was corrected to that corresponding to the standard creatinine concentration of urine according to the ' ℃ orrected Urinary Concentration Method " . The corrected amounts were then compared with those of the vita 皿 in intake on the previousdoi:10.20632/vso.48.4_185 fatcat:5ipkzymdz5b4bdtloehwk7twqm
more »... ay . A high corrclation was found betwcen vitamin C intake and ・ the urinary excretion , while no signifi − cant correlation was observed with vitamin B1 . The urinary excretion of vitamin I31 was much greater in the summer than in the spring and autumn , though its intake had been maintained at a rather constant level. ( Received / dnuar211 ,1974)
In plants, more than a dozen species of oxylipin carbonyl have been found (Yamauchi et al. 2012 and reviewed by Mano et al. 2009; Yin et al. 2010) . ... Oxylipin carbonyls exert signaling function or toxicity, depending on their levels (Mano et al. 2005; Matsui 2006; Mueller et al. 2008; Taki et al. 2005; Weber et al. 2004) . ...doi:10.5511/plantbiotechnology.14.1112a fatcat:sjs4emjznvbjflwknfgo2ft6i4
& People living in multicultural environments often encounter situations which require them to acquire different cultural schemas and to switch between these cultural schemas depending on their immediate sociocultural context. Prior behavioral studies show that priming cultural schemas reliably impacts mental processes and behavior underlying self-concept. However, less well understood is whether or not cultural priming affects neurobiological mechanisms underlying the self. Here we examineddoi:10.1162/jocn.2009.21192 pmid:19199421 fatcat:wo4laqc4lfd2taujrv6uhtez44
more »... ther priming cultural values of individualism and collectivism in bicultural individuals affects neural activity in cortical midline structures underlying self-relevant processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biculturals primed with individualistic values showed increased activation within medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) during general relative to contextual self-judgments, whereas biculturals primed with collectivistic values showed increased response within MPFC and PCC during contextual relative to general self-judgments. Moreover, degree of cultural priming was positively correlated with degree of MPFC and PCC activity during culturally congruent self-judgments. These findings illustrate the dynamic influence of culture on neural representations underlying the self and, more broadly, suggest a neurobiological basis by which people acculturate to novel environments. &
Human Brain Mapping
Individualism and collectivism refer to cultural values that influence how people construe themselves and their relation to the world. Individualists perceive themselves as stable entities, autonomous from other people and their environment, while collectivists view themselves as dynamic entities, continually defined by their social context and relationships. Despite rich understanding of how individualism and collectivism influence social cognition at a behavioral level, little is known aboutdoi:10.1002/hbm.20707 pmid:19107754 fatcat:nutk5rk2aballaxak45wrabbx4
more »... ow these cultural values modulate neural representations underlying social cognition. Using cross-cultural functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined whether the cultural values of individualism and collectivism modulate neural activity within medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) during processing of general and contextual self judgments. Here, we show that neural activity within the anterior rostral portion of the MPFC during processing of general and contextual self judgments positively predicts how individualistic or collectivistic a person is across cultures. These results reveal two kinds of neural representations of self (eg, a general self and a contextual self) within MPFC and demonstrate how cultural values of individualism and collectivism shape these neural representations. Hum Brain Mapp 30:2813-2820, 2009. V V C 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are thought to lack self-awareness and to experience difficulty empathizing with others. Although these deficits have been demonstrated in previous studies, most of the target stimuli were constructed for typically developing (TD) individuals. We employed judgment tasks capable of indexing self-relevant processing in individuals with and without ASD. Fourteen Japanese men and 1 Japanese women with high-functioning ASD (17-41 years of age) and 13doi:10.1093/scan/nsu126 pmid:25332405 pmcid:PMC4321632 fatcat:aipfev4mhvfgtjnpgnj5w37nju
more »... panese men and 2 TD Japanese women (22-40 years of age), all of whom were matched for age and full and verbal intelligence quotient scores with the ASD participants, were enrolled in this study. The results demonstrated that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated in individuals with ASD in response to autistic characters and in TD individuals in response to non-autistic characters. Although the frontal-posterior network between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and superior temporal gyrus participated in the processing of non-autistic characters in TD individuals, an alternative network was involved when individuals with ASD processed autistic characters. This suggests an atypical form of empathy in individuals with ASD toward others with ASD.
The inhibitory effect of gallium (Ga) ions on bone resorption and their superior microbial activity are attractive and sought-after features for the vast majority of implantable devices, in particular for implants used for hard tissue. In our work, for the first time, Ga ions were successfully incorporated into the surface of titanium metal (Ti) by simple and cost-effective chemical and heat treatments. Ti samples were initially treated in NaOH solution to produce a nanostructured sodiumdoi:10.3390/nano7080229 pmid:28825641 pmcid:PMC5575711 fatcat:zmr4altwuff77p3ayfs37m7ydq
more »... n titanate layer approximately 1 µm thick. When the metal was subsequently soaked in a mixed solution of CaCl 2 and GaCl 3 , its Na ions were replaced with Ca and Ga ions in a Ga/Ca ratio range of 0.09 to 2.33. 8.0% of the Ga ions were incorporated into the metal surface when the metal was soaked in a single solution of GaCl 3 after the NaOH treatment. The metal was then heat-treated at 600 • C to form Ga-containing calcium titanate (Ga-CT) or gallium titanate (GT), anatase and rutile on its surface. The metal with Ga-CT formed bone-like apatite in a simulated body fluid (SBF) within 3 days, but released only 0.23 ppm of the Ga ions in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) over a period of 14 days. In contrast, Ti with GT did not form apatite in SBF, but released 2.96 ppm of Ga ions in PBS. Subsequent soaking in hot water at 80 • C dramatically enhanced apatite formation of the metal by increasing the release of Ga ions up to 3.75 ppm. The treated metal exhibited very high antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB12). Unlike other antimicrobial coating on titanium implants, Ga-CT and GT interfaces were shown to have a unique combination of antimicrobial and bioactive properties. Such dual activity is essential for the next generation of orthopaedic and dental implants. The goal of combining both functions without inducing cytotoxicity is a major advance and has far reaching translational perspectives. This unique dual-function biointerfaces will inhibit bone resorption and show antimicrobial activity through the release of Ga ions, while tight bonding to the bone will be achieved through the apatite formed on the surface.
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