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Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Kuang-Ming Liao, Chung-Han Ho, Shian-Chin Ko, Chung-Yi Li
2015 Medicine  
Neurodegenerative disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was observed. We aim to clarify the risk of dementia in patients with COPD. The study used claims data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Subjects were those who received a discharge diagnosis of COPD between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2011. Only the first hospitalization was enrolled, and the index date was the first day of admission. Patients younger than 40 years or those
more » ... a history of Alzheimer disease (AD) or Parkinson disease (PD) before the index date were excluded. The patients with COPD were then followed until receiving a diagnosis of AD or PD, death, or the end of the study. Control subjects were selected from hospitalized patients without a history of COPD, AD, or PD and were matched according to age (±3 years), gender, and the year of admission at a 2:1 ratio. The comorbidities were measured from 1 year before the index date based on the ICD-9-CM codes. The study included 8640 patients with COPD and a mean age of 68.76 (±10.74) years. The adjusted hazard ratio of developing dementia (AD or PD) was 1.74 (95% confidence interval = 1.55-1.96) in patients with COPD compared with patients without COPD after adjusting for age, gender, and comorbidities. This nationwide cohort study demonstrates that the risk of dementia, including AD and PD, is significantly increased in patients with COPD compared with individuals in the general population.
doi:10.1097/md.0000000000000930 pmid:26061317 pmcid:PMC4616489 fatcat:34c74qim4jgufdjevbrq75inzu

Differential Hsp90-dependent gene expression is strain-specific and common among yeast strains [article]

Po-Hsiang Hung, Chia-Wei Liao, Fu-Hsuan Ko, Huai-Kuang Tsai, Jun-Yi Leu
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Enhanced phenotypic diversity increases the likelihood of a population surviving catastrophic conditions. It has been suggested that Hsp90, an essential molecular chaperone in eukaryotes, can suppress (i.e., buffer) or enhance (i.e., potentiate) the effects of genetic variation, enabling organisms to adjust their levels of phenotypic diversity in response to environmental cues. Many Hsp90-interacting proteins are involved in signaling transduction pathways and transcriptional regulation.
more » ... , it remains unclear if Hsp90-dependent differential gene expression is common in natural populations. By examining the gene expression profiles of five diverse yeast strains, we identified many genes exhibiting Hsp90-dependent strain-specific differential expression. We employed an analysis pipeline to identify transcription factors (TFs) potentially contributing to variable expression. We found that upon Hsp90 inhibition or heat stress, activities or abundances of Hsp90-dependent TFs varied among strains, resulting in differential strain-specific expression of their target genes, which consequently led to phenotypic diversity. We provide evidence that individual populations can readily display specific Hsp90-dependent gene expression, suggesting that the evolutionary impacts of Hsp90 are widespread in nature.
doi:10.1101/2020.11.19.389437 fatcat:xdx6sl2g3vevxg43wjmvro5z5u

MOESM1 of Assessing the endocrine disrupting potentials and genotoxicity in environmental samples from Taiwanese rivers

Pei-Hsin Chou, Chien-Hsun Chen, Kuang-Yu Chen, Fung-Chi Ko, Tsung-Ya Tsai, Yi-Po Yeh
2019 Figshare  
Additional file 1: Table S1. Basic information of Yanshuei River, Erren River, and Agondian River*1. Table S2. Biological parameters of the fish captured at downstream of Yanshuei River, Erren River, and Agondian River. Table S3. Method detection limits (MDLs) and recoveries of target PAHs investigated in this study. Figure S1. Concentration-activity curves of agonist/antagonist compounds for AR (DHT/FLU), ER (17β-E2/OHT), RXR (9cRA), and TR (T3). Figure S2. (A) AR (B) ER (C) RXR (D) TR
more » ... antagonist activities elicited by 10−/5-fold concentrated dry-season river water extracts (Water-D) and wet-season river water extracts (Water-W). Figure S3. Concentration-survival rates of Rec+ and Rec– strains exposed to genotoxic standard 4-NQO and dry−/wet-season (D/W) sediment extracts of E1, E7, A1, and A2.
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.11480292.v1 fatcat:rxmrwzyvirhnbk2g26cqkubevq

Assessing the endocrine disrupting potentials and genotoxicity in environmental samples from Taiwanese rivers

Pei-Hsin Chou, Chien-Hsun Chen, Kuang-Yu Chen, Fung-Chi Ko, Tsung-Ya Tsai, Yi-Po Yeh
2019 Genes and Environment  
Surface waters receive a variety of organic pollutants via wastewater discharge, and sediment represents a sink for hydrophobic contaminants. In this study, we used in vitro yeast-based reporter gene assays and a Bacillus subtilis Rec-assay to examine the occurrence of endocrine disrupting activities and genotoxic potentials in samples collected from three Taiwanese rivers. Levels of 51 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in muscles of fish captured from same rivers were also analyzed to
more » ... ess in vivo pollution of PAHs. Antagonist activities for androgen receptor and retinoid X receptor (RXR) were detected in river water extracts at environmentally relevant concentrations., and sediment extracts exhibited RXR agonist, RXR antagonist, and genotoxic potentials concurrently. Σ16 PAHs in fish muscles ranged from 44.9-242.4 ng g- 1 dry weight, representing 38 to 59% of the total 51 PAHs concentrations, and methylated PAHs of low molecular weight PAHs were often detected as well. Taiwanese river sediment samples concomitantly exhibited RXR disrupting potentials and genotoxic activities, whereas RXR agonist and antagonist activities were simultaneously detected in several dry-season sediment extracts. PAH levels in fish muscles were categorized as minimally polluted by aromatic compounds, nonetheless, the presence of methylated PAHs in muscles samples may be of concern owing to the higher toxic potentials than their parent compounds.
doi:10.1186/s41021-019-0140-9 pmid:31892995 pmcid:PMC6937667 fatcat:nhxusbfifrhxba763jsoxrc4uy

Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo

Szu-Yu Chen, Cho-Shuen Hsieh, Shi-Wei Chu, Cheng-Yung Lin, Ching-Yi Ko, Yi-Chung Chen, Huai-Jen Tsai, Chin-Hwa Hu, Chi-Kuang Sun
2006 Journal of Biomedical Optics  
Nervous system development is a complicated dynamic process, and many mechanisms remain unknown. By utilizing endogenous second-harmonic-generation as the contrast of polarized nerve fibers and third-harmonic-generation ͑THG͒ to reveal morphological changes, we have successfully observed the vertebrate embryonic nervous development from the very beginning based on a 1230-nm light source. The dynamic development of the nerve system within a live zebrafish embryo can be recorded continuously more
more » ... than 20 hr without fluorescence markers. Since the THG process is not limited by the time of gene expression and differentiation as fluorescence-based techniques are, the observable stages can be advanced to the very beginning of the development process. The complete threedimensional brain development from a neural plate to a neural tube can be uncovered with a submicron lateral resolution. We have, for the first time, also reported the generation of SHG from myelinated nerve fibers and the outer segment of the photoreceptors with a stacked membrane structure. Our study clearly indicates the fact that higher-harmonics-based optical microscopy has the strong potential to long-term in vivo study of the nervous system, including genetic disorders of the nervous system, axon pathfinding, neural regeneration, neural repair, and neural stem cell development.
doi:10.1117/1.2363369 pmid:17092171 fatcat:5yhfzqwdt5ep7nkcho24owwzwq

Altered Auditory P300 Performance in Parents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Offspring

Mei Hung Chi, Ching-Lin Chu, I Hui Lee, Yi-Ting Hsieh, Ko Chin Chen, Po See Chen, Yen Kuang Yang
2019 Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience  
Altered event-related potential (ERP) performances have been noted in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and reflect neurocognitive dysfunction. Whether these ERP alterations and correlated dysfunctions exist in healthy parents with ADHD offspring is worth exploring. Thirteen healthy parents with ADHD offspring and thirteen healthy controls matched for age, sex and years of education were recruited. The auditory oddball paradigm was used to evaluate the P300 wave complex
more » ... the ERP, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and continuous performance test were used to measure neurocognitive performance. Healthy parents with ADHD offspring had significantly longer auditory P300 latency at Fz than control group. However, no significant differences were found in cognitive performance. The presence of a subtle alteration in electro-neurophysiological activity without explicit neurocognitive dysfunction suggests potential candidate of biological marker for parents with ADHD offspring.
doi:10.9758/cpn.2019.17.4.509 pmid:31671488 pmcid:PMC6852684 fatcat:uec7ov5dsfgjll53d54siezjgm

Age-specific Prevalence Rates of Phimosis and Circumcision in Taiwanese Boys

Ming-Chung Ko, Chih-Kuang Liu, Wen-Kai Lee, Huey-Sheng Jeng, Han-Sun Chiang, Chung-Yi Li
2007 Journal of the Formosan Medical Association  
doi:10.1016/s0929-6646(09)60256-4 pmid:17475607 fatcat:b52kxvjsffaerfpeyzkjb7buce

Inhibition of CCAR1, a Coactivator of β-Catenin, Suppresses the Proliferation and Migration of Gastric Cancer Cells

Te-Sheng Chang, Kuo-Liang Wei, Chung-Kuang Lu, Yi-Hsing Chen, Ying-Tung Cheng, Shui-Yi Tung, Cheng-Shyong Wu, Ming-Ko Chiang
2017 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
The aberrant activation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in a variety of human cancers, including gastric cancer. Given the current hypothesis that cancer arises from cancer stem cells (CSCs), targeting the critical signaling pathways that support CSC self-renewal appears to be a useful approach for cancer therapy. Cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1) is a transcriptional coactivator which has been shown to be a component of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and which plays an important role
more » ... in transcriptional regulation by β-catenin. However, the function and clinical significance of CCAR1 in gastric cancer have not been elucidated. Here, we show that elevated CCAR1 nuclear expression correlates with the occurrence of gastric cancer. In addition, RNAi-mediated CCAR1 reduction not only suppressed the cell growth and increased apoptosis in AGS and MKN28 cells, but also reduced the migration and invasion ability of these cells. Furthermore, an in vivo xenograft assay revealed that the expression level of CCAR1 was critical for tumorigenesis. Our data demonstrates that CCAR1 contributes to carcinogenesis in gastric cancer and is required for the survival of gastric cancer cells. Moreover, CCAR1 may serve as a diagnostic marker and a potential therapeutic target.
doi:10.3390/ijms18020460 pmid:28230774 pmcid:PMC5343993 fatcat:frutheasnzastllojyubfgwmjq

A Zebrafish Model of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Produced throughtet2Genomic Editing

Evisa Gjini, Marc R. Mansour, Jeffry D. Sander, Nadine Moritz, Ashley T. Nguyen, Michiel Kesarsing, Emma Gans, Shuning He, Si Chen, Myunggon Ko, You-Yi Kuang, Song Yang (+6 others)
2014 Molecular and Cellular Biology  
The ten-eleven translocation 2 gene (TET2) encodes a member of the TET family of DNA methylcytosine oxidases that converts 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) to initiate the demethylation of DNA within genomic CpG islands. Somatic loss-of-function mutations ofTET2are frequently observed in human myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which is a clonal malignancy characterized by dysplastic changes of developing blood cell progenitors, leading to ineffective hematopoiesis. We used
more » ... genome-editing technology to disrupt the zebrafish Tet2 catalytic domain.tet2m/m(homozygous for the mutation) zebrafish exhibited normal embryonic and larval hematopoiesis but developed progressive clonal myelodysplasia as they aged, culminating in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) at 24 months of age, with dysplasia of myeloid progenitor cells and anemia with abnormal circulating erythrocytes. The resultanttet2m/mmutant zebrafish lines show decreased levels of 5hmC in hematopoietic cells of the kidney marrow but not in other cell types, most likely reflecting the ability of other Tet family members to provide this enzymatic activity in nonhematopoietic tissues but not in hematopoietic cells.tet2m/mzebrafish are viable and fertile, providing an ideal model to dissect altered pathways in hematopoietic cells and, for small-molecule screens in embryos, to identify compounds with specific activity againsttet2mutant cells.
doi:10.1128/mcb.00971-14 pmid:25512612 pmcid:PMC4323485 fatcat:vv3euwxwcvbvritrki2g3eztya

Antiapoptotic but Not Antiviral Function of Humanbcl-2 Assists Establishment of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Persistence in Cultured Cells

Ching-Len Liao, Yi-Ling Lin, Shih-Cheng Shen, Jing-Yih Shen, Hong-Lin Su, Yue-Ling Huang, Shiou-Hwa Ma, Yi-Ching Sun, Ko-Pei Chen, Li-Kuang Chen
1998 Journal of Virology  
Upon infection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were killed by a mechanism involved in apoptosis. While readily established in a variety of cell lines, JEV persistence has never been successfully instituted in BHK-21 and CHO cells. Since stable expression of humanbcl-2 in BHK-21 cells has been shown to delay JEV-induced apoptosis, in this study we investigated whether JEV persistence could be established in such cells. When
more » ... constitutively expressing bcl-2, but not its closest homolog,bcl-XL , following a primary lytic infection, approximately 5 to 10% of BHK-21 and CHO cells became persistently JEV infected during a long-term culture. From the persistent bulks, several independent clones were selected and expanded to form stable cell lines that continuously produced infectious virus without marked cytopathic effects (CPE). Among these stable cell lines, the truncated nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) was also detected and was indistinguishable from the NS1 truncations previously observed in JEV-persistent murine neuroblastoma N18 cells. However, the stable expression of NS1 alone, regardless of whether it was truncated or full length, failed to render the engineered cells persistently infected by JEV, implying that aberrant NS1 proteins were likely a consequence of, rather than a cause for, the viral persistence. Enforcedbcl-2 expression, which did not affect virus replication and spread during the early phase of cytolytic infection, appeared to attain JEV persistence by restriction of virus-induced CPE. Our results suggest that it is the antiapoptotic, rather than the antiviral, effect of cellularbcl-2 which plays a role in the establishment of JEV persistence.
doi:10.1128/jvi.72.12.9844-9854.1998 fatcat:qcuor5lgh5c5pcmz2wj54wdpzu

TNF-α augments CXCR2 and CXCR3 to promote progression of renal cell carcinoma

Kuang-Hui Sun, Guang-Huan Sun, Yi-Ching Wu, Bai-Jiun Ko, Hui-Tzu Hsu, Sheng-Tang Wu
2016 Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine  
Within the tumour microenvironment, a complex network of chemokines and their receptors affects the initiation and progression of tumours. The higher levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) are associated with tumour progression and an anti-TNF-a monoclonal antibody has been used successfully to treat patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the role of chemokines and their receptors in the TNF-a-promoted progression of RCC remains unclear. In this study, TNF-a was found to
more » ... nce the migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of RCC cells. To further investigate the molecular mechanism of TNF-a on the progression of RCC, reverse transcription and quantitative PCR was used to screen chemokines and chemokine receptors that were associated with tumorigenesis. The results showed that TNF-a significantly increased the expressions of CXCR2 and CXCR3 and their related ligands in RCC cells. Subsequently, we used a lentiviral shRNA system to knockdown the expression of CXCR2 and/or CXCR3 in RCC cells. CXCR2 and CXCR3 silencing inhibited the induction of Slug and ZEB-1 with TNF-a treatment of RCC cells. In addition, the knockdown of both CXCR2 and CXCR3 resulted in a greater decrease in cell migration, invasion and clonogenic ability compared with either CXCR2 or CXCR3 knockdown alone. Moreover, CXCR2 and CXCR3 silencing significantly reduced the sphere-forming ability of RCC cells. High expression levels of CXCR2 and CXCR3 in cancer tissues correlated with tumour progression of renal cell carcinoma. These findings suggest that TNF-a augments CXCR2 and CXCR3 to promote the progression of renal cell carcinoma leading to a poor prognosis.
doi:10.1111/jcmm.12890 pmid:27297979 pmcid:PMC5082409 fatcat:sgfszkwfq5g7beuzxu4umn5b2i

Fabrication and Characterization of Temperature Insensitive 660-nm Resonant-Cavity LEDs

Jun-Rong Chen, Tsung-Shine Ko, Tien-Chang Lu, Yi-An Chang, Hao-Chung Kuo, Yen-Kuang Kuo, Jui-Yen Tsai, Li-Wen Laih, Shing-Chung Wang
2008 Journal of Lightwave Technology  
Yi-An Chang was born in Prof.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jlt.2008.920639 fatcat:yfv64hoaz5bjjp7fkhk5jkpequ

Species and Antimicrobial Resistance of Uropathogens Isolated from Patients with Urinary Catheter

Ming-Chung Ko, Chih-Kuang Liu, Lin-Chung Woung, Wen-Kai Lee, Huey-Sheng Jeng, Shing-Hwa Lu, Han-Sun Chiang, Chung-Yi Li
2008 Tohoku journal of experimental medicine  
A large number of hospitalized patients have an indwelling urinary tract catheter (IUC) placed at some time during their hospital stay and may suffer from catheter-associated urinary tract infections, the leading cause of nosocomial infections. Here we investigated the prevalence of uropathogens associated with catheter-associated urinary tract infections and assessed the resistances of these pathogens to commonly prescribed antibiotics. In total, 2,997 urine samples were examined at a regional
more » ... hospital in Taipei, Taiwan in 2004: 1,948 (65%) samples from hospitalized patients and 1,049 (35%) samples from outpatients. Patients with IUCs accounted for 1,381 samples (46%). Stratified analyses were used to calculate the age-and gender-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of antimicrobial resistance associated with the use of IUCs. Compared to the urine specimens of the patients without IUCs, those isolated from catheterized patients had a lower prevalence rate of Escherichia (E.) coli (23.4% vs 36.8%) and higher rates of resistant strains including Pseudomonas species (16.4% vs 8.6%) and rare gram-negative bacilli (5.8% vs 4.5%). Additionally, IUCs significantly increased the antimicrobial resistance of E. coli (OR 2.41-3.07), other species of Enterobacteriaceae (OR 1.57-2.38), and rare gram-negative bacilli (OR 2.41-5.21) to nearly all antibiotics tested, such as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Thus, IUCs increased the prevalence of urinary tract infections caused by some highly resistant pathogens. Moreover, IUCs were associated with the increased risk of concurrent resistance of Enterobacteriaceae. Clinicians are advised to exercise better management of urinary catheter in order to further reduce and control catheter-associated urinary tract infections in hospitals. catheter associated urinary tract infections; antimicrobial resistance; concurrent resistance; prevalence; nosocomial infection. Tohoku
doi:10.1620/tjem.214.311 pmid:18441506 fatcat:aavzfrazljenpbxhfengz5hqjm

A Pilot Plant Study on the Autoclaving of Food Wastes for Resource Recovery and Reutilization

Chia-Chi Chang, Yen-Hau Chen, Yi-Shiou Lin, Zang-Sei Hung, Min-Hao Yuan, Ching-Yuan Chang, Yuan-Shen Li, Je-Lueng Shie, Yi-Hung Chen, Yen-Chi Wang, Chun-Han Ko, Far-Ching Lin (+4 others)
2018 Sustainability  
(Chang-Hua, Taiwan) and set up in Letzer Incineration Plant in Yi-Lan, Taiwan. The size of reactor is 680 mm in diameter and 1220 mm in length.  ...  (Chang-Hua, Taiwan) and set up in Letzer Incineration Plant in Yi-Lan, Taiwan. The size of reactor is 680 mm in diameter and 1220 mm in length.  ... 
doi:10.3390/su10103566 fatcat:wo36fqewubg3xhanv6dsojfnpe

2,4-Diamino-Quinazoline, a Wnt Signaling Inhibitor, Suppresses Gastric Cancer Progression and Metastasis

Te-Sheng Chang, Chung-Kuang Lu, Yung-Yu Hsieh, Kuo-Liang Wei, Wei-Ming Chen, Sui-Yi Tung, Cheng-Shyong Wu, Michael W. Y. Chan, Ming-Ko Chiang
2020 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Gastric cancer (GC) is among the most treatment-refractory epithelial malignancies. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin-signaling has been implicated in a variety of human cancers, including gastric cancer. Here we report that the elevated expression of lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (Lef1) is associated with the TNM (tumor– node–metastasis) stage of gastric cancer. Subsequently, 2,4-diamino-quinazoline (2,4-DAQ), a selective inhibitor of Lef1, was identified to suppress the expression of
more » ... nt/β-catenin target genes such as AXIN2, MYC and LGR5 and result in the suppression of gastric cancer cell growth through the apoptotic pathway. The 2,4-DAQ also exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration/invasion of gastric cancer cells. Importantly, the treatment of human gastric tumor xenograft with 2,4-DAQ suppressed tumor growth in a nude mouse model. Furthermore, 2,4-DAQ appears effective on patient-derived organoids (PDOs). Transcriptome sequencing analysis also revealed that 2,4-DAQ are more effective on the gastric cancers that exhibit higher expression levels of Wnt-signaling pathway-related genes than their adjacent normal gastric tissues.
doi:10.3390/ijms21165901 pmid:32824603 fatcat:actm5vx4ajdjrpyxckjogxusuq
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