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TIPE2, a newly identified protein, is essential for maintaining immune homeostasis. Results: Genetic ablation of the Tipe2 gene significantly increased the cerebral volume of infarction and neurological dysfunction in experimental stroke. Conclusion: TIPE2 is involved in the pathogenesis of stroke. Significance: TIPE2 plays an essential role in a signal transduction pathway that links the inflammatory immune response to specific conditions after cerebral ischemia.doi:10.1074/jbc.m112.348755 pmid:22859306 pmcid:PMC3463367 fatcat:gm5wmbg4xndzvkhncjivz6vmsu
AbstractThe prognostic factors and optimal treatment for the elderly patient with glioblastoma (GBM) were poorly understood. This study extracted 4975 elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) with histologically confirmed GBM from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Firstly, Cumulative incidence function and cox proportional model were utilized to illustrate the interference of non-GBM related mortality in our cohort. Then, the Fine-Gray competing risk model was applied todoi:10.1038/s41598-021-88820-5 pmid:33927308 fatcat:pjiwhp46jbhb7g6x3k4ncicwli
more »... mine the prognostic factors for GBM related mortality. Age ≥ 75 years old, white race, size > 5.4 cm, frontal lobe tumor, and overlapping lesion were independently associated with more GBM related death, while Gross total resection (GTR) (HR 0.87, 95%CI 0.80–0.94, P = 0.010), radiotherapy (HR 0.64, 95%CI 0.55–0.74, P < 0.001), chemotherapy (HR 0.72, 95%CI 0.59–0.90, P = 0.003), and chemoRT (HR 0.43, 95%CI 0.38–0.48, P < 0.001) were identified as independently protective factors of GBM related death. Based on this, a corresponding nomogram was conducted to predict 3-, 6- and 12-month GBM related mortality, the C-index of which were 0.763, 0.718, and 0.694 respectively. The calibration curve showed that there was a good consistency between the predicted and the actual mortality probability. Concerning treatment options, GTR followed by chemoRT is suggested as optimal treatment. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy alone also provide moderate clinical benefits.
This paper proposes a method for representation learning of multimodal data using contrastive losses. A traditional approach is to contrast different modalities to learn the information shared between them. However, that approach could fail to learn the complementary synergies between modalities that might be useful for downstream tasks. Another approach is to concatenate all the modalities into a tuple and then contrast positive and negative tuple correspondences. However, that approach couldarXiv:2107.02575v1 fatcat:tuhywqgemfax3inbbfzowkul7m
more »... onsider only the stronger modalities while ignoring the weaker ones. To address these issues, we propose a novel contrastive learning objective, TupleInfoNCE. It contrasts tuples based not only on positive and negative correspondences but also by composing new negative tuples using modalities describing different scenes. Training with these additional negatives encourages the learning model to examine the correspondences among modalities in the same tuple, ensuring that weak modalities are not ignored. We provide a theoretical justification based on mutual information for why this approach works, and we propose a sample optimization algorithm to generate positive and negative samples to maximize training efficacy. We find that TupleInfoNCE significantly outperforms the previous state of the arts on three different downstream tasks.
The usually used L/S ratio in treatment of bismuthinite by electrooxidation is 3 (Wang et al., 1995a; Liu, 1998) . ... ., 2010; Liu, 2011) . In the conventional froth flotation process, most of the molybdenite floats along with the Bi sulfides, forming Bi-Mo concentrates. ...doi:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.04.012 fatcat:toef63f2jnbchgbylazbvwwbuu
Perfluorotripropylamine (FC-3283), a kind of perfluorocarbon as oxygen carrier, is encapsulated in a copolymer using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to modify poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) to prepare a PLGA-PEG/FC-3283 emulsion for highly efficient reoxygenation to cell. 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and high performance ion chromatography proved the formationdoi:10.21127/yaoyigc.20150019 fatcat:6ipkv5vkwvfljp4dlx6de5wism
more »... of the PLGA-PEG and PLGA-PEG/FC-3283 emulsion. High performance ion chromatography revealed that FC-3283 content in the emulsion is 9.4%. Furthermore, CCK-8 assay was used to detect the cytotoxicity of the PLGA-PEG/FC-3283 emulsion to HCT 116 cells. Finally, the ability of oxygen supply and release of PLGA-PEG/FC-3283 emulsion was evaluated by CCK-8 asssy and fluorophotometry based on establishing hypoxia/reoxygenation model of HCT 116 cells with liquid paraffin. By detecting the cells increment rate and the content changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) before and after reoxygenation, we explored the oxygen carry and release ability of PLGA-PEG/FC-3283 emulsion. The results showed that the cell viability increased significantly through PLGA-PEG/FC-3283 emulsion administration after the cells were treated with hypoxia.
Game-based Pricing and Task Offloading in Mobile Edge Computing Enabled Edge-Cloud Systems Yi Su, Wenhao Fan, Member, IEEE, Yuan'an Liu, Member, IEEE, and Fan Wu Abstract-As a momentous enabling of the ... Liu et all.  brought a thorough study on the energy consumption, execution delay and payment cost of offloading processes in a fog computing system where only one OSP exists. ...arXiv:2101.05628v1 fatcat:bdp6mjl5szgwxgrpoanie254sy
Magnetic skyrmions possess topologically non-trivial particle-like nanoscale domain wall structures, which have reasonably good stability and unique dynamic properties and can be controlled by magnetic fields, electric fields, and electric currents. Therefore, magnetic skyrmions are expected to be used as novel information carriers in the nextgeneration high-density, low-energy-consumption, and non-volatile information storage and logic computing devices. Since the first experimentaldoi:10.7498/aps.67.20180894 fatcat:7idtb3td25dnzfmpk67eflkxie
more »... of magnetic skyrmions in 2009, a number of skyrmion-based device prototypes have been proposed. In this article, we review the recently proposed skyrmion-based devices and applications, including skyrmion-based racetrack memory, logic computing device, transistor-like functional device, and nano-oscillator. We first discuss advantages of skyrmion-based racetrack memory and solutions for some problems we are facing currently. We then introduce the duplication and merging of magnetic skyrmions and the skyrmion-based logic OR and AND gates. We also introduce the switch function of skyrmion-based transistor-like functional device. The switch function is realized via a voltage gate and controlled by the applied voltage as well as the driving spin current. Besides, a brief introduction of the skyrmion-based nano-oscillator is given. In addition, we introduce several possible methods to encode binary information in skyrmion-based devices. Finally, we discuss some possible future novel applications based on magnetic skyrmions.
Yi Lu helped to revise the statistical analysis and helped to revise the manuscript. Yi Luo obtained funding for the study, participated in the study design, and helped to revise the manuscript. ...doi:10.1186/s12886-016-0309-y pmid:27507241 pmcid:PMC4979130 fatcat:xrpyymtrfbe3zg6sfcbirgdgru
Film hole irrigation is an advanced low-cost and high-efficiency irrigation method, which can improve water conservation and water use efficiency. Given its various advantages and potential applications, we conducted a laboratory study to investigate the effects of soil texture, bulk density, initial soil moisture, irrigation depth, opening ratio (ρ), film hole diameter (D), and spacing on cumulative infiltration using SWMS-2D. We then proposed a simplified model based on the Kostiakov modeldoi:10.3390/w9070543 fatcat:nfmgahl4pzhn3clj6y3u3jdixm
more »... infiltration estimation. Error analyses indicated SWMS-2D to be suitable for infiltration simulation of film hole irrigation. Additional SWMS-2D-based investigations indicated that, for a certain soil, initial soil moisture and irrigation depth had the weakest effects on cumulative infiltration, whereas ρ and D had the strongest effects on cumulative infiltration. A simplified model with ρ and D was further established, and its use was then expanded to different soils. Verification based on seven soil types indicated that the established simplified double-factor model effectively estimates cumulative infiltration for film hole irrigation, with a small mean average error of 0.141-2.299 mm, a root mean square error of 0.177-2.722 mm, a percent bias of −2.131-1.479%, and a large Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient that is close to 1.0. area covered by film mulch considerably increased to 20 million hm 2 in 2014, and its use increased fourfold (from 642 to 2580 megatons) from 1991 to 2014. Film hole irrigation has also developed along with film-mulched techniques for crops with wide line spacing  . Film hole irrigation is a relatively new irrigation method that involves completely covering a bordered field with plastic film with holes of uniform size  . Water penetrates into the soil through the holes during irrigation, and seedlings sprout through these holes on germination. Compared with the traditional surface irrigation method, this technique considerably reduces water losses and improves the uniformity of irrigation along the long direction of the border [6, 16, 18, 19] . Mathematical models and software, such as winSRFR  , have been widely used in the design of irrigation systems to improve the efficiency of water application and the uniformity of water distribution. Film hole irrigation is somewhat similar to point-source irrigation, in that water infiltration occurs in the region directly around the film hole. Unlike other point source irrigation systems, in which the water is transported by tubes, in film mulch irrigation, water is applied to the top of the border or furrow and it flows above the applied film mulch to the end of the border or furrow under the influence of gravity, similar to surface irrigation. In the design of a surface irrigation system, a zero-inertia model and winSRFR software are the most useful tools. In the model, the infiltration and roughness are the key parameters to be determined. As with surface irrigation, the infiltration characteristics of film hole irrigation are fundamental for determining a field film hole irrigation scheme with high application efficiency and distribution uniformity. Therefore, studying a simple and easily-estimated infiltration model of film hole irrigation is essential. Numerous laboratory studies and some field studies on film hole infiltration have been conducted in the last two decades in China; such studies have mainly focused on wetting patterns, empirical modeling, and infiltration characteristics, including single and multipoint source infiltration [18, 21, 22] . However, the models of all of these studies have been empirical descriptions of some specific soils; therefore, a more universally applicable model must be developed. Numerical simulation is often used in soil research. From a theoretical point of view, film hole irrigation involves three-dimensional point-source infiltration under a low-pressure water head (i.e., irrigation depth). Similar to subsurface drip irrigation, film hole infiltration is affected by many factors, such as soil texture, bulk density (γ d ), irrigation depth, film hole diameter (D), and hole spacing (i.e., distance between the centers of two neighboring holes). With the development of computer simulation techniques, numerical simulations based on the theory of unsaturated soil water movement are being increasingly used to study soil water infiltration. Several programs, such as HYDRUS and SWMS-2D, are often used to simulate soil water movement, and these have been effectively and accurately applied to subsurface drip irrigation       for predicting wetting patterns and infiltration characteristics, yielding more generally applicable results  . Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the feasibility of SWMS-2D for simulation of the cumulative infiltration of film hole irrigation through a laboratory experiment; (2) to investigate the effects of various influencing factors on cumulative infiltration in film hole irrigation and then to select the dominant factors; and (3) to propose and verify a simplified double-factor model that estimates the infiltration of film hole irrigation. Materials and Methods Laboratory Experiments Given the realities that constrain film hole irrigation in the field, the film hole diameters and spacing are generally determined by the actual situation of field crops. The diameters of film holes and the spaces between them are typically 3-8 and 12-30 cm, respectively. The opening ratio, ρ, is defined as the ratio of the area of the open holes to the total area under the plastic mulching; in general, ρ is 2-5%; the irrigation amount is 225-450 m 3 ·hm −2 ; and the irrigation depth relative to the film mulch is kept constant within a range of 4-6 cm [30, 31] . The soil is usually irrigated when the soil water content Water 2017, 9, 543 3 of 18 (SWC) is at 40-60% field capacity. Considering all of these irrigation variables, we designed eight treatments for our experiments (Table 1) .
Liu et al.  propose a set of medium-independent table metadata to facilitate the table indexing, searching, and exchanging, in order to extract the contents of tables and their metadata. ...arXiv:2003.07560v1 fatcat:yoluu3ijobdaja7vifn6q5bgay
Batch Normalization (BN) is ubiquitously employed for accelerating neural network training and improving the generalization capability by performing standardization within mini-batches. Decorrelated Batch Normalization (DBN) further boosts the above effectiveness by whitening. However, DBN relies heavily on either a large batch size, or eigen-decomposition that suffers from poor efficiency on GPUs. We propose Iterative Normalization (IterNorm), which employs Newton's iterations for much morearXiv:1904.03441v1 fatcat:uybhuigvkvg55axm7kopoerj7y
more »... icient whitening, while simultaneously avoiding the eigen-decomposition. Furthermore, we develop a comprehensive study to show IterNorm has better trade-off between optimization and generalization, with theoretical and experimental support. To this end, we exclusively introduce Stochastic Normalization Disturbance (SND), which measures the inherent stochastic uncertainty of samples when applied to normalization operations. With the support of SND, we provide natural explanations to several phenomena from the perspective of optimization, e.g., why group-wise whitening of DBN generally outperforms full-whitening and why the accuracy of BN degenerates with reduced batch sizes. We demonstrate the consistently improved performance of IterNorm with extensive experiments on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet over BN and DBN.
Gout is one of the common inflammatory arthritis which affects many people for inflicting unbearable pain. Macrophage-mediated inflammation plays an important role in gout. The uptake of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals by macrophages can lead to activation of NOD-like receptors containing a PYD 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, thus accelerating interleukin (IL)-1β production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promoted development of the inflammatory process through NLRP3 inflammasome. Our study aimed todoi:10.1186/s12974-017-0849-y pmid:28376889 pmcid:PMC5381065 fatcat:zykdmypqffgpnb42kgzhh4xaq4
more »... a food-derived compound to attenuate gout pain via the specific inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages. Methods: CD-1 mice were used to evaluate the degree of pain and the swelling dimension of joints after an intra-articular (IA) MSU injection in the ankle. The murine macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 was used to investigate the effects of procyanidins and the mechanism underlying such effects. Histological analysis was used to measure the infiltration of inflammatory cells. ROS produced from Raw 264.7 cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell signaling was measured by Western blot assay and immunofluorescence. Results: Procyanidins significantly attenuated gout pain and suppressed ankle swelling. Procyanidins also inhibited MSU-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and increase of IL-1β. Furthermore, procyanidins decreased ROS levels in Raw 264.7 cells. Conclusions: Suppression of the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages contributes to the amelioration of gout pain by procyanidins.
Keypoints of objects reflect their concise abstractions, while the corresponding connection links (CL) build the skeleton by detecting the intrinsic relations between keypoints. Existing approaches are typically computationally-intensive, inapplicable for instances belonging to multiple classes, and/or infeasible to simultaneously encode connection information. To address the aforementioned issues, we propose an end-to-end category-implicit Keypoint and Link Prediction Network (KLPNet), whicharXiv:2011.14462v1 fatcat:etbfwctuifa4leqdxrvbcoehzu
more »... the first approach for simultaneous semantic keypoint detection (for multi-class instances) and CL rejuvenation. In our KLPNet, a novel Conditional Link Prediction Graph is proposed for link prediction among keypoints that are contingent on a predefined category. Furthermore, a Cross-stage Keypoint Localization Module (CKLM) is introduced to explore feature aggregation for coarse-to-fine keypoint localization. Comprehensive experiments conducted on three publicly available benchmarks demonstrate that our KLPNet consistently outperforms all other state-of-the-art approaches. Furthermore, the experimental results of CL prediction also show the effectiveness of our KLPNet with respect to occlusion problems.
Reading scientific papers has been an essential way for researchers to acquire academic knowledge, and most papers are in PDF format. However, existing PDF Readers only support reading, editing, annotating and other basic functions, and lack of multi-granularity analysis for academic papers. Specifically, taking a paper as a whole, these PDF Readers cannot access extended information of the paper, such as related videos, blogs, codes, etc.; meanwhile, for the content of a paper, these PDFarXiv:2204.02809v1 fatcat:a3hdav5npbbs5k2ssk2uacurxy
more »... s also cannot extract and display academic details of the paper, such as terms, authors, citations, etc. In this paper, we introduce Hammer PDF, a novel intelligent PDF Reader for scientific papers. Beyond basic reading functions, Hammer PDF comes with four innovative features: (1) locate, mark and interact with spans (e.g., terms) obtained by information extraction; (2) citation, reference, code, video, blog, and other extended information are displayed with a paper; (3) built-in Hammer Scholar, an academic search engine that uses academic information collected from major academic databases; (4) built-in Q\&A bot to support asking for interested conference information. Our product helps researchers, especially those who study computer science, to improve the efficiency and experience of reading scientific papers. We release Hammer PDF, available for download at https://pdf.hammerscholar.net/face.
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