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Ultrafine spherical quartz formation during seismic fault slip: Natural and experimental evidence and its implications

Li-Wei Kuo, Yen-Fang Song, Che-Ming Yang, Sheng-Rong Song, Chun-Chieh Wang, Jia-Jyun Dong, John Suppe, Toshihiko Shimamoto
2015 Tectonophysics  
Song), the National Taiwan University (103R104051 to J. Suppe) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41330211).  ...  Currently, on the basis of continuous coring Song et al., 2007a; Yeh et al., 2007) , a suite of geophysical measurements (Hirono et al., 2008a; Hung et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2007 Wu et al., , 2008 ,  ...  The TXM facility (Yin et al., 2006) of beamline BL01B (Song et al., 2007a,b) at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) in Taiwan provides 2D micrograph and 3D tomography at spatial  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2015.09.008 fatcat:yvq4txm32fhpnfgf2ribvovtsi

Transmission X-ray Microscopy—A New Tool in Clay Mineral Floccules Characterization

Marek S. Żbik, Yen-Fang Song, Ray L. Frost, Chun-Chieh Wang
2012 Minerals  
Effective flocculation and dewatering of mineral processing streams containing 19 clays are microstructure dependent in clay-water systems. Initial clay flocculation is crucial 20 for the design and new methodology for gas exploitation. Microstructural engineering of clay 21 aggregates using covalent cations and Keggin macromolecules have been monitored using 22 the new state of the art Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM) with 60 nm tomography 23 resolution installed in the Taiwanese
more » ... . The 3-D reconstructions from TXM 24 images show complex aggregation structures in montmorillonite aqueous suspensions after 25 treatment with Na +
doi:10.3390/min2040283 fatcat:jy2wym7mxzag5aobxfgdegzc4m

Discovery of Discrete Structured Bubbles within Lunar Regolith Impact Glasses

Marek S. Zbik, Yen-Fang Song, Chun-Chieh Wang, Ray L. Frost
2012 ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics  
The unusual morphology and internal structure of bubbles within lunar regolith impact glasses have been studied using traditional scanning electron microscopy and the novel technique transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), with 3D tomography reconstruction. Here, we show the previously unknown phenomenon of building a highly porous cellular structure within bubbles in glassy particles of the dust fraction of lunar regolith. Vesicles within studied lunar glasses are filled in with submicron-sized
more » ... rticles as shown in the presented micrograph. These particles consist of glass nano in size elements. What is shown in the TXM tomography reconstruction anaglyph demonstrates cellular-like, 3D structure where oblique probably glassy fine particles down to 100 nm in diameter build chains of sophisticated network. It also may be suggested that submicron and nano-sized grains present in lunar regolith are the result of particle liberation from broken glassy vesicles. This liberation takes place when regolith is exposed to constant impact pulverisation. Liberated particles are permanently enriching lunar soil in the finest soil constituent. This constituent presence in lunar regolith may be responsible for the unusual behaviour of lunar material. This unusual constituent of lunar regolith and its properties have to be better understood before our permanent lunar exploration begins.
doi:10.5402/2012/506187 fatcat:yia2nv4gprbuxgw4c3rl476ree

A CMOS Pulse-Shrinking Mechanism with Improved Resolution

Chun-Chi CHEN, Yen-Cheng CHEN, Song-Quan YOU, Wei FANG
2017 DEStech Transactions on Engineering and Technology Research  
A new CMOS time measurement mechanism based on pulse shrinking applicable to time-to-digital converters (TDCs) is presented to improve resolution. In previous mechanism, the resolution was determined by controlling size ratio between an inhomogeneous and homogeneous logic gates to achieve sub-gate resolution. By only adding an inhomogeneous gate with identical size on the previous mechanism, the proposed mechanism possesses not only a resolution improvement but also a better resolution
more » ... on for process and temperature variations. The proposed work was implemented in a 0.35-µm CMOS process for performance evaluation. The results demonstrated that the proposed mechanism achieves a significant resolution improvement with better resolution insensitivity to the process and temperature variations.
doi:10.12783/dtetr/iceeac2017/10760 fatcat:vpx5odsofre4po7ykwacebgsvi

In Situ Transmission X-ray Microscopy Study on Working SnO Anode Particle of Li-Ion Batteries

Sung-Chieh Chao, Yu-Chan Yen, Yen-Fang Song, Hwo-Shuenn Sheu, Hung-Chun Wu, Nae-Lih Wu
2011 Journal of the Electrochemical Society  
. * Electrochemical Society Active Member. z E-mail:; Experimental Samples and electrode preparations.  ... 
doi:10.1149/2.043112jes fatcat:gai6h4arhzgojhp446sypvyqhq

Towards 100 [article]

Chen-Yu Hu, Yu-Fang Chiu, Chia-Chin Tsai, Chao-Chung Huang, Kuan-Hao Chen, Cheng-Wei Peng, Chien-Min Lee, Ming-Yuan Song, Yen-Lin Huang, Shy-Jay Lin, Chi-Feng Pai
2022 arXiv   pre-print
5d transition metal Pt is the canonical spin Hall material for efficient generation of spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in Pt/ferromagnetic layer (FM) heterostructures. However, for a long while with tremendous engineering endeavors, the damping-like SOT efficiencies (ξ_DL) of Pt and Pt alloys are still limited to ξ_DL<0.5. Here we present that with proper alloying elements, particularly 3d transition metals V and Cr, the strength of the high spin Hall conductivity of Pt (σ_SH∼6.45×10^5(ħ/2e)Ω^-1·
more » ... ) can be developed. Especially for the Cr-doped case, an extremely high ξ_DL∼0.9 in a Pt_0.69Cr_0.31/Co device can be achieved with a moderate Pt_0.69Cr_0.31 resistivity of ρ_xx∼133 μΩ·cm. A low critical SOT-driven switching current density of J_c∼3.16×10^6 A·cm^-2 is also demonstrated. The damping constant (α) of Pt_0.69Cr_0.31/FM structure is also found to be reduced to 0.052 from the pure Pt/FM case of 0.078. The overall high σ_SH, giant ξ_DL, moderate ρ_xx, and reduced α of such Pt-Cr/FM heterostructure makes it promising for versatile extremely low power consumption SOT memory applications.
arXiv:2108.13857v2 fatcat:2y7gkswekvafbeisswvbxpbtuq

2D Nb-doped MoS_2: Tuning the Exciton Transitions and Application to p-type FETs [article]

Baokun Song, Honggang Gu, Mingsheng Fang, Zhengfeng Guo, Yen-Teng Ho, Xiuguo Chen, Hao Jiang, Shiyuan Liu
2021 arXiv   pre-print
, †,# Honggang Gu, †,#,* Mingsheng Fang, † Zhengfeng Guo, † Yen-Teng Ho, *, ‡ Xiuguo Chen, † Hao Jiang, † Shiyuan Liu *, † † State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology  ...  3-5 samples; optical model of 2D Mo1-xNbxS2 film on the c-sapphire substrate; Supporting Information 2D Nb-doped MoS 2 : Tuning the Exciton Transitions and Application to p-type FETs Baokun Song  ... 
arXiv:2104.05427v1 fatcat:arc5ilvhljbojcca4jbt52exba

In-Situ Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Probed by Synchrotron Radiation for Li-Ion Batteries

Nai-Hsuan Yang, Yen-Fang Song, Ru-Shi Liu
2018 Frontiers in Energy Research  
Copyright © 2018 Yang, Song and Liu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fenrg.2018.00056 fatcat:afm6zxfh5zdy7j75utwbtm6dfi

Imaging voltage-dependent cell motions with heterodyne Mach-Zehnder phase microscopy

Christopher Fang-Yen, Seungeun Oh, Yongkeun Park, Wonshik Choi, Sen Song, H. Sebastian Seung, Ramachandra R. Dasari, Michael S. Feld
2007 Optics Letters  
We describe a heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometric microscope capable of quantitative phase imaging of biological samples with subnanometer sensitivity and frame rates up to 10 kHz. We use the microscope to image cultured neurons and measure nanometer-scale voltage-dependent motions in cells expressing the membrane motor protein prestin.
doi:10.1364/ol.32.001572 pmid:17546192 fatcat:q63h46loprhlfbvutu6z3hn56q

Kaolinite flocculation induced by smectite addition – A transmission X-ray microscopic study

Marek S. Żbik, Yen-Fang Song, Ray L. Frost
2010 Journal of Colloid and Interface Science  
The influence of smectite addition on kaolinite suspensions in water was investigated by transmission Xray microscopy (TXM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Sedimentation test screening was also conducted. Micrographs were processed by the STatistic IMage Analysing (STIMAN) program and structural parameters were calculated. From the results of the sedimentation tests important influences of small smectite additions to about 3 wt.% on kaolinite suspension flocculation has been found. In
more » ... der to determine the reason for this smectite impact on kaolinite suspension, macroscopic behaviour micro-structural examination using Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM) and SEM has been undertaken. TXM & SEM micrographs of freeze-dried kaolinite-smectite suspensions with up to 20% smectite showed a high degree of orientation of the fabric made of highly oriented particles and greatest density when 3 wt.% of smectite was added to the 10 wt.% dense kaolinite suspension. In contrast, suspensions containing pure kaolinite do not show such platelet mutual orientation but homogenous network of randomly oriented kaolinite platelets. This suggests that in kaolinite-smectite suspensions, smectite forms highly oriented basic framework into which kaolinite platelets may bond in face to face preferential contacts strengthening structure and allowing them to show plastic behaviour which is cause of platelets orientation.
doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2010.05.019 pmid:20621806 fatcat:ae6nukhpcfahtgspvbqhvibtre

Smectite clay microstructural behaviour on the Atterberg limits transition

Marek S. Żbik, David J. Williams, Yen-Fang Song, Chun-Chieh Wang
2015 Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects  
behaviour on the Atterberg limits transition, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (2014), http://dx. Abstract: Particle space arrangement is a very important factor that determines the physicomechanical properties of soil. Formations of three-dimensional (3D) structured networks within gelled or flocculated suspension may prevent clay particles and aggregates from building dense aggregates and by encapsulate water within the ultrathin and closed void network, lead
more » ... poor sludge dewatering. To better understand the water retention behaviour of smectite-rich clays, a microstructural investigation was conducted on Amcol Australian bentonite in aqueous suspension in near the liquid limit (LL) and the plastic limit (PL). The investigation was conducted with the aid of synchrotron-powered transmission x-ray microscope tomography (TXM), with subsequent computer reconstruction. Images from the microscopy studies were statistically analysed using the STatistical IMage ANalysing (STIMAN) system. The study found that clay particles form a spanned framework in which mineral particles, aggregates and waterfilled voids assemble as hierarchic structural elements. The size of these structural elements was larger in the water suspension and subsequently became smaller as an effect of water loss in the suspension > liquid and > plastic limit conditions. The clay suspension structure was almost isometric, with a low anisotropy coefficient: Kα -9%. This parameter increased to Kα -17% in (LL) and increased further in (PL) conditions to Kα -35%. Voids within structural elements were much smaller than the water filled inter-flock voids, with their median diameter 140 nm (suspension), 120 nm (LL) and 90 nm (PL). Significant differences in Atterberg limits values were observed between powder freshly mixed with water and a seasoned sample. Therefore, careful consideration of the sample mineral composition, clay content and genesis must be given due to preparation for geotechnical examination.
doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2014.11.042 fatcat:gvl4cskvq5gzvckfkak7fwnw6e

A study on the interior microstructures of working Sn particle electrode of Li-ion batteries by in situ X-ray transmission microscopy

Sung-Chieh Chao, Yu-Chan Yen, Yen-Fang Song, Yi-Ming Chen, Hung-Chun Wu, Nae-Lih Wu
2010 Electrochemistry communications  
The interior microstructures of Sn particles developed during electrochemical lithiation/de-lithiation have been revealed by in situ X-ray transmission microscopy (TXM). The Li-alloying particles exhibited the formation of core-shell internal structure along with crack formation within the lithiated zone during the first lithiation. The extent and speed of the expansion process was shown to be a strong function of particle size. Upon completion of the first de-lithiaiton, the particles only
more » ... ially ($10%) contracted, while re-crystallization of Sn continued to take place within the interior of the particles during a following idle period. The re-crystallization process alleviated the pulverization problem and led to the formation of porous Sn particles, which exhibited remarkably attenuated dimensional variations during subsequent cycles.
doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2009.12.002 fatcat:kgvhozpnkbcb3nnkc23vl6dorm

Evolution and Function of Dinosaur Teeth at Ultramicrostructural Level Revealed Using Synchrotron Transmission X-ray Microscopy

Chun-Chieh Wang, Yen-Fang Song, Sheng-Rong Song, Qiang Ji, Cheng-Cheng Chiang, Qingjin Meng, Haibing Li, Kiko Hsiao, Yi-Chia Lu, Bor-Yuan Shew, Timothy Huang, Robert R. Reisz
2015 Scientific Reports  
The relationship between tooth form and dietary preference is a crucial issue in vertebrate evolution. However, the mechanical properties of a tooth are influenced not only by its shape but also by its internal structure. Here, we use synchrotron transmission X-ray microscopy to examine the internal microstructures of multiple dinosaur teeth within a phylogenetic framework. We found that the internal microstructures of saurischian teeth are very different from advanced ornithischian teeth,
more » ... cting differences in dental developmental strategies. The three-tissue composition (enamelmantle dentin-bulk dentin) near the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) in saurischian teeth represents the primitive condition of dinosaur teeth. Mantle dentin, greatly reduced or absent from DEJ in derived ornithischian teeth, is a key difference between Saurischia and Ornithischia. This may be related to the derived herbivorous feeding behavior of ornithischians, but interestingly, it is still retained in the herbivorous saurischian sauropods. The protective functions of mantle dentin with porous microstructures between enamel and bulk dentin inside typical saurischian teeth are also discussed using finite-element analysis method. Evolution of the dental modifications in ornithischian dinosaurs, with the absence of mantle dentin, may be related to changes in enamel characteristics with enamel spindles extending through the DEJ. To date, however, the internal fine structures of dinosaur teeth have not been thoroughly studied because of limitations in analytical techniques. For example, X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ -CT) can provide three-dimensional (3D) information on the internal microstructures of teeth non-destructively 14,15 , but cannot reveal internal structures at scales smaller than 1 μ m. When combined with focused ion beam (FIB) techniques, however, SEM-FIB can provide 3D internal information on specimens at a nanometer-level spatial resolution 16 , but these are destructive and time-consuming methods. In this study, we use synchrotron transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) 17,18 to identify the 3D ultramicrostructures of various kinds of dinosaur teeth. TXM employs a Fresnel zone plate objective to achieve a spatial resolution of up to 30 nm 19 , along with ultrahigh-brightness synchrotron hard X-rays. This permits investigations into the diversity of 3D internal ultramicrostructures of dinosaur teeth from both saurischian and ornithischian dinosaurs and explore the evolutionary trends of these dinosaurs.
doi:10.1038/srep15202 pmid:26512629 pmcid:PMC4625602 fatcat:hccuyanuozcp3kciltp5hspwbe

Slip zone and energetics of a large earthquake from the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project

Kuo-Fong Ma, Hidemi Tanaka, Sheng-Rong Song, Chien-Ying Wang, Jih-Hao Hung, Yi-Ben Tsai, Jim Mori, Yen-Fang Song, Eh-Chao Yeh, Wonn Soh, Hiroki Sone, Li-Wei Kuo (+1 others)
2006 Nature  
Determining the seismic fracture energy during an earthquake and understanding the associated creation and development of a fault zone requires a combination of both seismological and geological field data 1 . The actual thickness of the zone that slips during the rupture of a large earthquake is not known and is a key seismological parameter in understanding energy dissipation, rupture processes and seismic efficiency. The 1999 magnitude-7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan, produced large slip
more » ... to 10 metres) at or near the surface 2 , which is accessible to borehole drilling and provides a rare opportunity to sample a fault that had large slip in a recent earthquake. Here we present the retrieved cores from the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project and identify the main slip zone associated with the Chi-Chi earthquake. The surface fracture energy estimated from grain sizes in the gouge zone of the fault sample was directly compared to the seismic fracture energy determined from near-field seismic data 3,4 . From the comparison, the contribution of gouge surface energy to the earthquake breakdown work is quantified to be 6 per cent. The North-South-trending Chelungpu fault is a major 90-km structure that dips shallowly to the east (30u), and principally slips within, and parallel to, bedding of the Pliocene Chinshui shale 5 . Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) drilled two vertical holes 40 m apart (hole A to a depth of 2 km, and hole B to a depth of 1.3 km), and a side-track from hole B (hole C) at the depth of 950 m to 1,200 m about 2 km east of the surface rupture, near the town of DaKeng (Fig. 1a) . The subsurface location of the Chinshui shale was known from high-resolution seismic reflection profiles 6,7 at a depth of about 1,000 m under the DaKeng site. The spatial slip distribution for the earthquake was well constrained from close strong motion stations and Global Positioning System (GPS) data 3,4 and shows a slip of 8.3 m on the fault near the drill site. The drilling carried out continuous coring for depths of 500-2,000 m for hole A, 950-1,300 m for hole B and 950-1,200 m for hole C, respectively. Geophysical well logs were carried out in hole A to collect seismic velocities, densities and digital images. From the hole-A core, the Chelungpu fault zone is seen within the Chinsui shale as a damaged zone at depths of about 1,105 to 1,115 m, consisting of fault breccia and fault gouge (Fig. 1b) . The degree of fracturing increases from the top to the bottom of the zone. Near the bottom of the broad zone of deformation, a 12-cm-thick primary slip zone (PSZ) can be identified based on the presence of ultra-finegrained fault gouge and increased fracture density at depths of 1,111.23 to 1,111.35 m. A corresponding feature was also found in the hole-B core at depths of 1,136.50 to 1,136.62 m, confirming the fault dip of 30u E. The geophysical logging measurements of low
doi:10.1038/nature05253 pmid:17122854 fatcat:djibpzzvxjhavhmw7rkihu5wa4

The formation of a structural framework in gelled Wyoming bentonite: Direct observation in aqueous solutions

Marek S. Żbik, David J. Williams, Yen-Fang Song, Chun-Chieh Wang
2014 Journal of Colloid and Interface Science  
Hypothesis Particle space arrangement is a very important factor that determines the physico-mechanical properties of soil. Formations of three-dimensional (3D) structured networks within gelled or flocculated suspension may prevent clay particles and aggregates from settling under gravity force and by encapsulate water within such a network, lead to poor sludge dewatering. To better understand this phenomenon, a microstructural investigation of a smectite clay (SWy2) suspension was conducted.
more » ... xperiments SWy-2 was diluted in water and a moderately salty aqueous solution and was studied with the aid of a synchrotron-powered transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) and cryogenic transmission electron microscope (Cryo-TEM). Observations of mutual particle arrangement in 3D spaces were conducted within a natural water environment after vitrification without drying. Findings A new type of micro-architecture in particle space arrangement was observed. Smectite flakes were mostly in edge-to-edge (EE) contact and formed a 3D network, confirming a "net of flakes" structural model. Clay particles form a complex and multi-hierarchic flocculated structure with characteristic cellular chained networking. Chained aggregates build cellular elements, * encapsulating water inside closed voids. Increasing ionic strength results in development of multi-hierarchic voids categories, with most water retained within nano-pores. Particle space arrangement is a very important factor that determines the physico-mechanical properties in soil. These properties play a major role in dams, footings and other engineering projects in which soil strength or permeability is crucial to the performance of a structure. As most soil mineral particles cannot be shredded by natural factors beyond a certain size, they are not present in the soil size fraction below 2 µm. Particles observed below this size limit are mostly secondary minerals that belong to the sheet silicates and are known as clays. The structure of clay-rich soils is important to a range of engineering tasks, especially those dealing with soil dewatering and stabilization. As soil structure depends on the primary particle aggregating in aqueous suspension, primary aggregating processes are the subject of increasing research interest. This study focuses on the structure of aggregates and flocks within clay-rich suspension. To avoid misunderstanding of the terms "structure" and "texture," we follow the most recent definition of "soil structure" by Osipov & Sokolov [1] as "space arrangement of all soil constituents characterized by a set of morphometric, geometric and energy parameters. It is defined by qualitative composition, quantitative ratio of all soil components and interaction between them." However, as soil macroscopic physical behavior is governed by their constitution on a microscopically small scale, we use the term "soil microstructure" in this study. Despite numerous studies around the world, the subject is still poorly understood because of its complexity and the difficulty presented by the minute size. To enrich knowledge in this field, the present study is dedicated to investigating the microstructure of gelled smectite flocks within moderately salty aqueous suspensions. The findings from these observations may be used to improve water recovery technology primarily in mine-tailing dewatering projects. Highlights • Microstructural investigation of smectite clay in aqueous solutions was conducted. • New type of microstructure model in clay suspension "net of flakes" was proposed. • Larger aggregates in CaCl 2 solution show FF stacking with EF coagulation contacts. • Most water retained within the network was immobilized resists dewatering attempts.
doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2014.08.004 pmid:25233225 fatcat:ifg3ijmr7ffpjpygpiozryn35u
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